Chapter 4 pt.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 pt.2 Deck (31):
1

What is bottom-up processing?

One of the methods in perceiving forms, patterns, and objects.
- entirely based on input
- details make up the whole

2

What is top-down processing?

One of the methods in perceiving forms, patterns, and objects.
- holistic/global processing
- based on experience
- read the word before the letters

3

How could you sum up Gerstalt's priciples of perception?

the whole is greater than its parts

4

List Gerstalt's principles of form perception.

- figure-ground
- proximity, closure
- similarity
- simplicity
- continuity

5

What's the difference between binocular and monocular cues?

Binocular cues are clues from both eyes together;retinal disparity.
Monocular cues are clues only needing a single eye; pictorial depth cues.

6

How do binocular and monocular cues allow for depth perception?

Binocular cues help us judge distance, and monuclar cues help us judge distnce based off of cues like texture.

7

Hearing is measured in ______ waves

sound

8

How is sound measured?

in amplitude and frequency

9

The height of a sound wave

amplitude

10

the number of peaks in sound waves

frequency

11

When talking about "loudness" what is the technical term?

amplitude

12

When talking about "pitch" what is the technical term?

frequency

13

the different harmonics in sound

timbre

14

What are the main theories of hearing?

1. place theory
2. frequency theory
3. traveling wave theory

15

Explain the place theory of hearing.

pitch perception corresponds to the vibration of different places along the basilar membrane

16

Explain the frequency theory of hearing.

perception of pitch corresponds to the frequency at which the entire basilar membrane vibrate

17

Explain the traveling wave theory.

whole basilar membrane moves, but the waves peak at particular places

18

The taste receptors are clusters of cells found in the ______ _____

taste buds

19

_____ __________ are clusters of cells found in the taste buds

taste receptors

20

How is gustatory (ie taste) information absorbed?

1. something touches the taste receptors located in taste buds
2. cells absorb chemicals and trigger neural impulses
3. send the information throughout the thalamus and on to the cortex

21

The sensory system is NOT routed through the _________ before it projects into the cortex

thalamus

22

How is olfactory information absorbed?

1. neurons on top of your nose lets you absorb chemicals
2. hits the olfactory bulb
3. hits the olfactory axon
4. hits the olfactory cilia (receptor cells )

23

What are the primary tastes?

- sweet
- sour
- bitter
- salty
- umami (brothy flavor)

24

The external ear depends on the _________ __ ____ ________

vibration of air molecules

25

The middle ear depends on the _________ __ _________ ______

vibration of movable bones.

26

The inner ear depends on ______ __ _ ____, which are finally converted into a stream of neural signals sent to the brain.

waves in a fluid

27

a sound-collecting cone

pinna

28

a taunt membrane that vibrates in response

eardrum

29

a fluid-filled, coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing

cochlea

30

runs the length of the spiraled cochlea, holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells

basilar membrane

31

What is the Mcgurk effect?

the perceptual illusion that occurs when the visual perception of a sound (seeing lips move) is paired with the auditory information of a different sound which produces a perception of a different third sound.