Chapter 6 pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 pt. 2 Deck (47):
1

When does classical conditioning transfer to other stimuli?

When stimulus generalization occurs

2

eliciting a fear response when hearing any drill, not just the original drill the fear was conditioned with

stimulus generalization

3

Who first described classical conditioning?

Pavlov

4

What are the two types of conditioning?

1. classical conditioning
2. operant conditioning

5

Who created operant conditioning?

B.F. Skinner

6

occurs when an event following a response increases the organisms tendency to make that response

reinforcement

7

What is the difference in classical conditioning & operant conditioning; when it comes to acquisition?

Classical conditioning: CS and US are paired, gradually resulting in CR
Operant conditioning: Responding gradually increases because of reinforcement, possibly through shaping

8

What is the difference in classical conditioning & operant conditioning; when it comes to extinction?

Classical conditioning: CS is presented alone until it no longer elicits CR
Operant conditioning: responding gradually slows and stops after reinforcement is terminated

9

What is the difference in classical conditioning & operant conditioning; when it comes to stimulus generalization?

Classical conditioning: CR is elicited by new stimulus that resembles original CS
Operant conditioning: responding increases in the presence of new stimulus that resembles original discriminative stimulus

10

What is the difference in classical conditioning & operant conditioning; when it comes to stimulus discrimination?

Classical conditioning: CR is not elicited by new stimulus that resembles original CS
Operant conditioning: responding does not increase in the presence of new stimulus that resembles original discriminative stimulus

11

the final stage of learning

acquisition

12

the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency

extinction

13

What is the difference between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination?

Stimulus generalization-an organism’s responding to stimuli other than the original stimulus used in conditioning.
Stimulus discrimination- an organism’s lack of response to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus used in conditioning

14

What are the two types of reinforcement schedules?

1. continuos
2. intermittent

15

What is the difference between ratio schedules and interval schedules?

Ratio schedules are the number of responses determines appearance of reinforcer.
Interval schedules, when timing determines appearance of reinforcer

16

Ratio schedules are composed of what two ratios?

1. fixed ratio
2. variable ratio

17

Interval schedules are composed of what two intervals?

1. fixed interval
2. variable interval

18

What is an example of a interval schedule?

a 9 to 5 job

19

What is the difference between fixed ratio and variable ratio?

Fixed Ratio, a schedule in which you will always get rewarded after a certain number of occurrence.
Variable Ratio, no guarantees

20

Reinforcement __________ the likelihood of making a response.

increases

21

____________ increases the likelihood of making a response

reinforcement

22

Punishment __________ the likelihood of making a response

decreases

23

___________ decreases the likelihood of making a response

punishment

24

Positive reinforcement (+): the likelihood of a response occurring is strengthened by ___________ a rewarding stimulus

providing

25

_________ _____________ (+): the likelihood of a response occurring is strengthened by providing a rewarding stimulus

Positive reinforcement

26

Negative reinforcement (-): the likelihood of a response occurring is strengthened by _______ ____ an aversive stimulus

taking away

27

________ ____________ (-): the likelihood of a response occurring is strengthened by taking away an aversive stimulus

Negative reinforcement

28

Is this negative or positive reinforcement: reward a child with an ice cream cone after receiving an excellent report card

positive reinforcement

29

Is this negative or positive reinforcement: rewarding a child for receiving a an excellent report card by taking away one of their mandatory weekly chores

negative reinforcement

30

What are the two types of negative reinforcement?

1. escape learning
2. avoidance learning

31

Escape learning- learning a response that __________ or ____ aversive stimulation

decreases
ends

32

_______ ________- learning a response that decreases or ends aversive stimulation

Escape learning

33

Avoidance learning- learning a response that ________ some aversive stimulation

prevents

34

_________ ________- learning a response that prevents some aversive stimulation

Avoidance learning

35

What type of negative reinforcement is this: leaving a party where you were getting picked on. Now you consider escaping/ running away as viable solution for conflict?

escape learning

36

What type of negative reinforcement is this: you’ve just learned that its started to pour rain on Tropicana and Paradise. You decided to wait to leave UNLV until the water has dried up to avoid water damage to your car?

avoidance learning

37

What are the two types of punishment?

1. positive punishment
2. negative punishment

38

Positive punishment (+): reduces the likelihood of making a response by ________/______ an aversive stimulus

providing/giving

39

________ __________ (+): reduces the likelihood of making a response by providing/giving an aversive stimulus

Positive punishment

40

Is this positive or negative punishment: spanking a child after/as they threw a tantrum

positive punishment

41

_________ ___________ (-): reduces the likelihood of making a response by removing a rewarding stimulus (i.e., like freedom, TV privileges)

negative punishment

42

Negative punishment (-): reduces the likelihood of making a response by __________ a rewarding stimulus (i.e., like freedom, TV privileges)

removing

43

Is this positive or negative punishment: sending a child to “time-out” after/ as they threw a tantrum

negative punishment

44

Is this positive or negative punishment: sending an adult to jail after getting charged with breaking and entering, and also grand larceny

negative punishment

45

Who created the observational learning model?

Albert Bandura

46

how could observational learning be adaptive?

- we use it when we learn a new job or how to drive
- it is also a quick way to learn

47

how could observational learning be maladaptive?

media violence controversy