Chapter 7 pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 pt. 1 Deck (41):
1

What are the stages of forming memories?

1. encoding
2. storage
3. retrieval

2

Which stage of forming memories is this: input of information (from senses)?

encoding

3

Which stage of forming memories is this: maintenance of information?

storage

4

Which stage of forming memories is this: purpose is to delay decay, and form long lasting representations?

storage

5

Which stage of forming memories is this: involves sensory areas sending information to hippocampus?

storage

6

Which stage of forming memories is this: allows for memory to be recovered and used?

retrieval

7

Encoding is the input of information (from _______).

senses

8

________ is the input of information (from senses).

Encoding

9

An example of forming memories using computers:
The keyboard is the __________, the saving data on a hard disk is _________, and data on a monitor is ________.

encoding
storage
retrieval

10

An example of forming memories using computers:
The __________ is the encoding, the _______ ____ __ _ ____ ____ is storage, and _____ __ _ ________ is retrieval.

keyboard
saving data on a hard disk
data on a monitor

11

involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events

attention

12

attention is not only necessary for conscious perception, but also ______ for memory formation

critical

13

attention is not only necessary for conscious perception, but also critical for ________ _________

memory formation

14

attention is not only necessary for ________ _________, but also critical for memory formation

conscious perception

15

_______ _________ results in poorer memory representations, or reduction in what you are able to remember.

Divided attention

16

According to the levels of processing theory, deeper/more detailed __________ results in longer lasting memory

processing

17

What are the three levels of processing?

1. shallow processing
2. intermediate processing
3. deep processing

18

What is the difference between shallow, intermediate, and deep processing?

1. Shallow processing- physical structure emphasized, basic feature noted
2. Intermediate processing- phonemic encoding , one step up from shallow, emphasizes acoustic features
3. deep processing- semantic encoding, emphasizes the meaning of verbal input

19

Which type of encoding is used in each processing level?

Shallow processing= structural encoding
Intermediate processing= phonemic encoding
Deep processing= semantic encoding

20

What type of encoding is this: emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus?

structural encoding

21

What type of encoding is this: emphasizes what a word sounds like?

phonemic encoding

22

What type of encoding is this: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input?

semantic encoding

23

What type of encoding is this: "is the word written in capital letters?"

structural encoding

24

What type of encoding is this: "does the word rhyme with weight?"

phonemic encoding

25

What type of encoding is this: "would the word fit in the sentence 'He met a _____________ on the street?'"

semantic encoding

26

What factors can enhance memory formation and storage?

1. elaboration
2. visual imagery
3. motivation

27

linking a stimulus to other existing information at time of encoding

elaboration

28

thinking of a picture of the item you are trying to remember (easier for some things than others- “truth” vs “apple”)

visual imagery

29

memory is enhanced when there is high motivation to remember something

motivation

30

Memory passes through what 2 temporary storage stages of memory, before they reach long-term memory?

sensory memory and short-term memory

31

What is the difference in the length of time sensory memory and short-term memory work?

Sensory memory, preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time (depending on the sense).
Short term memory, memory store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to 20 sec.

32

What are the two types of sensory memories?

1. visual sensory memory
2. auditory sensory memory

33

Visual sensory memory is also known as _______ memory.

iconic

34

________ _______ memory is also known as iconic memory.

visual sensory

35

________ _______ memory is also known as echoic memory.

auditory sensory

36

Auditory sensory memory is also known as ______ memory.

echoic

37

Information can be maintained for longer periods of time using _________

rehearsal

38

At what stage of memory does rehearsal occur?

short-term memory

39

process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information

rehearsal

40

Short-term memory can be disrupted by ______ or __________

decay
interference

41

How can we get around memory capacity limits?

chunking- a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit