Chapter 3 pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 pt. 2 Deck (31):
1

Neural Communication: Neuronal communication uses what 2 main substances>

1. Electricity
2. Neurotransmitters

2

Neural Communication: Neurotransmitters may bind at receptor sites on ____-_________ terminal, which are tuned to respond to specific transmitters

post-synaptic

3

Neural Communication: Neurotransmitters may bind at _______ sites on post-synaptic terminal, which are tuned to respond to ________ transmitters

receptor
specific

4

Neural Communication: What three chemicals are active during neuron communication?

Sodium
Potassium
Chloride

5

Neural Communication:
What type of charge do these chemicals have:
Sodium
Potassium
Chloride

Sodium=positive charge
Potassium=positive charge
Chloride= negative charge

6

Neural Communication: Sodium is attracted to ________ and ___________

chloride
potassium

7

Neural Communication: Changes in ________ ________ inside a neuron signals a release of NT which leads to changes in electric charge in the next neuron which leads to release of NT….

electric charge

8

Neural Communication: Changes in electric charge inside a neuron signals a _________ __ ___ which leads to changes in electric charge in the next neuron which leads to release of NT….

release of NT (neurotransmitters)

9

Neural Communication: Changes in electric charge inside a neuron signals a release of NT which leads to changes in _______ _____ in the next neuron which leads to release of NT….

electric charge

10

Neural Communication: Changes in electric charge inside a neuron signals a release of NT which leads to changes in electric charge in the next neuron which leads to ________ __ ___….

release of NT (neurotransmitters)

11

True or False:
Neural Communication: Charged ions only exist inside of cells

False; Charged ions exist both inside and outside of cells:

12

Neural Communication: What are the scientific abbreviations of sodium and potassium?

NA+ (Sodium)
K+ (Potassium)
CL- (Chloride)

13

Neural Communication: Large number of negative ions, few positive ions=________ charge

negative

14

Neural Communication: Large number of positive ions, few negative ions= _________ charge

positive

15

Neural Communication: When the inside of the cell has a ________ _______ it is at rest, meaning it is not ready to fire, i.e., resting potential (approx -70 millivolts)

negative charge

16

Neural Communication: Explain general property of electricity.

Given the opportunity, charged ions will always move towards their opposite charge and gradient!

17

Neural Communication: List the steps in neuronal communication.

Step 1: NT binds to dendrites of post synaptic terminal
Step 2: Charged ions flow into cell (which is negative right now)
Step 3: If sufficient positive charge is reached, then Neuron will fire! (Action potential)
Step 4: NT released at pre-synaptic terminal
Step 5: NTs traverse the synaptic cleft to bind to next cell and repeat process

18

Neural Communication: what is a brief shift in neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon?

an action potential

19

Neural Communication: a voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane

postsynaptic potential (PSP)

20

Neural Communication: postsynaptic potential (PSP) is graded or varied in _____

size

21

Neural Communication: ____________ ________ (PSP) is graded or varied in size

postsynaptic potential

22

Neural Communication: postsynaptic potential increase or decrease the probability of a _______ _______ in the receiving cell

neural impulse

23

Neural Communication: postynaptic potential increase or decrease the probability of a neural impulse in the __________ ____

receiving cell

24

Neural Communication: _________ PSPs: increases likelihood of firing (cell becomes more positive)

Excitatory

25

Neural Communication:
Excitatory PSPs: increases likelihood of _______ (cell becomes more ________)

firing
positive

26

Neural Communication: _________ PSPs: decreases likelihood of firing (cell becomes more negative)

Inhibitory

27

Neural Communication:
Inhibitory PSPs: __________ likelihood of firing (cell becomes more _________)

decreases
negative

28

Neural Communication: minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin

refractory period

29

Neural Communication: left over NT that is taken back up into the presynaptic cell

reuptake

30

Neural Communication: What are neural networks?

-patterns of neural activity
-interconnected neurons that fire together or sequentially

31

Neural Communication: Why is it important to understand neural communication?

-neuronal communication underlies every thought and action you have
-understanding healthy functions are important in treating dysfunctions