Final Exam pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 101 > Final Exam pt. 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam pt. 2 Deck (48):
1

What are the main types of disorders?

1. Affective (mood) Disorders
2. Anxiety Disorders
3. PTSD
4. Schizophrenia
5. Eating Disorders
6. Delusional Disorders

2

What type of disorders are under affective disorders?

1. major depressive disorder
2. bipolar disorder
3. dysthymia (mild depression)

3

What type of disorders are under anxiety disorders?

1. panic disorder
2. general anxiety disorder

4

What type of disorders are under eating disorders?

1. anorexia
2. bulimia

5

What are the symptoms of major depressive disorder/dysthymia?

-feel sad or irritable most of the day
-less interest in activities
-suddenly lose or gain weight & have a change in appetite
-sleep more/less often
-feelings of restlessness
-lethargic
-feel worthless or guilty
- difficulty concentrating & making decisions
-think about self-harm or committing suicide.
-irritability
-social seclusion

6

What are some of the suggested causes major depressive disorders/ dysthymia?

-alcohol or drug abuse
-certain medical conditions
-a combination of genes and stress
-changes in the balance of hormones
-tragic life events

7

What is the difference between major depressive disorder and dysthymia disorder?

Differences between major depressive disorder and dysthymia are characterized by levels of severity, duration and persistence.

8

What are the symptoms of bipolar type 1 disorder?

Going back and forth between manic episodes and depressive episodes.

9

Bipolar disorder was formerly known as ______ _________.

manic depression

10

______ ________ was formerly known as manic depression.

Bipolar disorder

11

What are the symptoms of bipolar type 2 disorder?

Is similar to bipolar I disorder, with moods cycling between high and low over time.
However, in bipolar II disorder, the "up" moods never reach full-blown mania.

12

What is the difference between mania and depression?

Mania:
-Persistent and elevated mood
-Increased rate of speech
-Grandiosity
-Flight of ideas
-Distractibility
-Increase in goal-directed behavior
-Excessive involvement in activities with high pleasure and high risk for harm
Depression:
-Feeling depressed or down
-Psychomotor retardation or agitation
-Lack of goal-directed activity (avolition)
-Lack of pleasure derived from previously pleasurable activities (anhedonia)
-Weight gain or weight loss when not dieting
-Sleep disturbances
-Fatigue
-Worthlessness or guilt
-Difficulty concentrating
-Recurrent thoughts of death or frank suicidal ideation/ intent

13

What type of behavior constitutes as a disorder?

-Deviance
-Maladaptive Behavior
-Personal Distress

14

Affect means ________.

emotion

15

Feelings of depression, sadness, loss, anger, etc. after the loss of a loved one are normal.

Grief

16

What are the symptoms of a panic disorder?

-Increased heart rate
-Increased respiration
-Feelings of dizziness
-Increased blood pressure
-W/ or w/o agoraphobia
-Avoidance of situations
-aimed at something specific
-i.e. anxiety attacks

17

Anthony just received a pop quiz from his instructor, but he decides that he doesn't care how he performs on the quiz because his score is irrelevant to his grade. This evaluation is part of Anthony's _________ appraisal of the situation.
A. primary
B. secondary
C. reactionary
D. response modification

A. primary

18

Dr. Cummings believes that psychological disorders can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured, just like physical illnesses. Dr. Cummings' views reflect the point of view suggested by:
A. the medical model of abnormal behavior
B. the behavioral model of abnormal behavior
C. the deviance model of abnormal behavior
D. the psychodynamic model of abnormal behavior

A. the medical model of abnormal behavior

19

The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by:
A. low levels of expressed emotion in the family of the schizophrenia patient
B. disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or at birth
C. genetic factors that interact with environmental stressors during infancy
D. abnormal levels of dopamine and serotonin in the cerebral cortex

B. disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or at birth

20

True or False: In general, minor everyday stressor have only a minimal impact on mental and physical health.

False

21

As a task becomes more complex, the level of arousal associated with optimal task performance tends to __________.

decrease

22

The medical model proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a(n) ________.

disease

23

The neurotransmitter that seems to be most closely linked with schizophrenic disorders is _________.

dopamine

24

What are the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder?

Non-specific anxiety, may be aimed at many targets, may be indefinable.
People may experience physical symptoms of anxiety, though less often than for other anxiety disorders.

25

Drugs that act on _____ receptors are those most effective at the treatment of anxiety (e.g. Valium, Xanax)

GABA

26

Drugs that act on GABA receptors are those most effective at the treatment of ______ (e.g. Valium, Xanax)

anxiety

27

Drugs that act on GABA receptors are those most effective at the treatment of anxiety (e.g. _______, ______)

Valium
Xanax

28

Especially in ______ and ______ disorders, there is increased NS (neural stimulus) activity.

panic
phobic

29

Especially in panic and phobic disorders, there is increased ___ (_____ _______) activity.

NS (neural stimulus)

30

What are the symptoms of PTSD?

-Distressing memories
-Distressing dreams
-Dissociative reactions/ flashbacks of recurrence
-Psychological distress when reminded of the event
-Physiological hyper-reactivity to things symbolizing event
-Avoidance of stimuli
-Negative alterations in cognitions and mood
-Hyper-reactivity to stimuli not directly related to the event

31

What are different ways people can develop PTSD?

-Direct Experience
-Witnessing such
-Learning it happened to a close family member
-Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to the evidence of such

32

What are the symptoms of delusional disorders?

-Delusion is a firmly held belief, not amenable to change in light of disconfirming evidence.
-Must not meet criteria for schizophrenia
-Delusions can be widely varied:
---Grandiose (i.e., delusions of grandeur…)
---Bizarre
---Persecutory
---Religious

33

What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?

-Delusions
-Hallucinations
-Disorganization (motor & speech)
-Negative symptoms
-Reduction in functioning (often severe)

34

What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

-Hallucinations
-Delusions
-Things that are present which would not be under normal conditions

35

What are the negative symptoms of sxhizophrenia?

-Anhedonia
-Avolition
-Poverty of speech
-Things that are absent, or present in attenuated form

36

What is the dopamine hypothesis model?

Less active dopamine leads to less schizophrenic symptoms and vice-versa.

37

One of the biological factors that cause schizophrenia is reduced neural volume, indicated by _________ enlargement.

ventricular

38

What is the environmental process that might contribute to schizophrenia?

1. parental communication deviance
2. poor sense of reality
3. withdrawal into personal world
4. disordered thinking

39

Explain the diathesis-stress model (of schizophrenia).

Step 1 (or 2): Environmental factors in present leads to stress
Step (1 or) 2: Psychological factors in personal history and/or biological factors leads to vulnerability
Step 3: intersection of high stress and high vulnerability
Step 4: onset of schizophrenia

40

Which disorder has the highest mortality rate of all mental disorders?

anorexia

41

What is the difference between anorexia and bulimia?

Anorexia-Severe restriction of food intake, may be accompanied by purging behavior
Bulimia-Characterized by binging and purging

42

What are the different ways bulimics used to purge?

Purging can be vomiting, increased use of diuretics, enemas, diarrhea medication, etc.

43

There is an increased risk of ___________ in both anorexia and bulimia.

osteoporosis

44

There is an increased risk of osteoporosis in both _______ and _______.

anorexia
bulimia

45

Binging often followed by _____, often dissociation during binging episodes.

guilt

46

Binging often followed by guilt, often __________ during binging episodes.

dissociation

47

Binging often followed by guilt, often dissociation during _______ episodes.

binging

48

Eating disorders more common in ________ societies.

western