Chpt. 1, Early Civilization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 1, Early Civilization Deck (33)
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1
Q

Paleolithic Age

A

aka the Old Stone Age, it ended in 12,000 BCE; typified by the use of crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence

2
Q

Homo sapiens

A

the humanoid species that emerged as the most successful at the end of the Paleolithic period

3
Q

Neolithic Age (New Stone Age)

A

the New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 (sometimes 3,000) BCE; a period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals was also accomplished

4
Q

Neolithic Revolution

A

the succession of technological innovation and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture, and lasted from 8500 to 3500 BCE

5
Q

hunting and gathering

A

the original human economic form, it was ultimately eclipsed by agriculture; in this type of economy, groups of humans hunt for meat and forage for grains, nuts, and berries

6
Q

Bronze Age

A

this lasted from about 4000 BCE, when bronze tools were first introduced in the Middle East, to about 1500 BCE, when iron began to replace bronze

7
Q

slash and burn agriculture

A

a system of cultivation typical of shifting cultivators; forest floors were cleared by fire and then planted

8
Q

band

A

a level of social organization normally consisting of 20 to 30 people; consisted of nomadic hunters and gatherers; labor was divided on a gender basis; men generally did more hunting, especially for bigger game, and women more gathering

9
Q

Çatal Hüyük

A

an early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey, this city was larger in population than Jericho (another early city), and had a greater degree of social stratification

10
Q

civilization

A

societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and the existence of nonfarming elites, as well as merchant and manufacturing groups (there is debate over what exactly defines one of these)

11
Q

cuneiform

A

a form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge-shaped stylus and clay tablets; it was the Sumerians’ most important contribution

12
Q

nomads

A

cattle- and sheep-herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; they were commonly referred to as “barbarian” by civilized societies

13
Q

Mesopotamia

A

literally “between the rivers”; the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of Tigris and Euphrates river valleys

14
Q

Sumerians

A

people who migrated into Mesopotamia c. 4000 BCE; created the first civilization within the region, and organized the area into city-states

15
Q

ziggurats

A

massive towers usually associated with Mesopotamian temple complexes

16
Q

city-state

A

a form of political organization typical of Mesopotamian civilizations; consisted of agricultural hinterlands ruled by an urban-based king

17
Q

Babylonian Empire

A

unified all of Mesopotamia c. 1800 BCE; collapsed due to foreign invasion c. 1600 BCE

18
Q

Hammurabi

A

the most important ruler of the Babylonian empire; he was responsible for the codification of the law into what would become known as the “Code of Hammurabi”

19
Q

pharaoh

A

title of the kings of ancient Egypt

20
Q

Kush

A

an African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 1000 BCE; they conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries

21
Q

Indus River Valley

A

a region whose rivers have sources in the Himalayas and mouths in the Arabian Sea; this was the location of the Harappan civilization

22
Q

Mohenjo Daro

A

along with Harappa, this was one of the major urban complexes of the Harappan civilization; it was laid out on a planned grid pattern; had around 100,000 people

23
Q

Chinese river valleys

A

the Yellow River (Huang He) and Yangzi (Yangtze) Because the western reaches of China border on desert, and much of the interior is hilly or mountainous, these two east-west rivers are especially important for supporting agriculture, allowing movement, and fostering social and political unity

24
Q

Shang

A

the first Chinese dynasty for which archeological evidence exists; its capital was located in the Ordos bulge of the Huanghe; flourished between 1600 and 1046 BCE

25
Q

oracles

A

Shamans or priests in Chinese society who foretold the future through interpretations of animal bones, cracked by heat; inscriptions on bones led to Chinese writing

26
Q

ideograph

A

pictographic characters grouped together to creates new concepts, typical of Chinese writing

27
Q

Phoenicians

A

a seafaring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; it had established colonies throughout the Mediterranean

28
Q

monotheism

A

the exclusive worship of a single god; introduced by the Jews into Western civilization

29
Q

pyramids

A

monumental architecture typical of the Old Kingdom of Egypt; they were used as a burial site for pharaohs

30
Q

Eurasia

A

Europe and Asia together are sometimes referred to as this

31
Q

Afro-Eurasia

A

Europe, Asia, and Africa together are sometimes referred to as this

32
Q

land features that favored civilization

A

-a climate that was not extremely hot, cold, dry, or wet -a suitable amount of fertile land, preferably flat -a reliable source of water -topography (the shape of the land) that permitted reasonably easy movement -access to a river, seacoast, or both, for the sake of transport and food supply -the presence of one or more desirable natural resources -proximity to one or more trade routes

33
Q

Bering land bridge

A

an overland route between Siberia and Alaska which most scholars believe existed; 15,000 years ago, settlers from Eurasia could have crossed this to enter North America