Chpt. 34, East Asia and the Pacific Rim Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 34, East Asia and the Pacific Rim Deck (35):
1

Pacific Rim

the region including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. It was typified by rapid growth rates, expanding exports, and industrialization. All of them were either Chinese, or strongly influenced by Confucian values. They were considerably reliant on government planning and direction, with limitations on dissent and instability.

2

Taiwan

An island off the Chinese mainland that became a refuge for the Nationalist Chinese regime under Chiang Kai-shek during the Communist takeover in 1948. It was known as the Republic of China. It successfully retained independence with the aid of the US, and rapidly industrialized after the 1950s.

3

Liberal Democratic Party

The party that monopolized Japanese government from its formation in 1955 into the 1990s, and was largely responsible for the economic reconstruction of Japan.

4

Republic of Korea

The southern half of Korea sponsored by the United States following WW2; it was headed by nationalist Syngman Rhee; it developed parliamentary institutions but maintained authoritarian government. It was defended by UN forces during the Korean War, and underwent industrialization and economic emergence after the 1950s.

5

People's Democratic Republic of Korea

The northern half of Korea, which was dominated by the U.S.S.R. It was long headed by Kim Il-Sung, and attacked South Korea in 1950, initiating the Korean war. It retained independence as a communist state after the war.

6

Korean War

A war fought from 1950 to 1953 between North Korea and South Korea. North Korea was supported by the U.S.S.R. and later the People's Republic of China. South Korea was supported by the US and a small international UN force. It ended in stalemate and the continued division of Korea.

7

Hong Kong

A British colony on the Chinese mainland that was a major commercial center. An agreement was reached between Britain and the People's Republic of China that returned the colony to China in 1997.

8

Hyundai

An example of huge industrial groups that wield great power in modern South Korea. It virtually governed Korea's southeastern coast and the vertical economic organization, with ships, supertankers, factories, schools, and housing units.

9

Chiang Ching-kuo

The son and successor of Chiang Kai-shek as ruler of Taiwanese government in 1978. He continued authoritarian government and attempted to lessen the gap between followers of his father and indigenous islanders.

10

Lee Kuan Yew

The ruler of Singapore from independence in 1959 through three decades, he established a tightly controlled authoritarian government. He ruled through the People's Action Party and suppressed political diversity.

11

People's Republic of China

The Communist government of mainland China. It was proclaimed in 1949 following the military success of Mao Zedong over the forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.

12

Lin Biao

A Chinese commander under Mao who trained at Chiang Kaishek's Whampoa Academy in the 1920s.

13

party cadres

The basis of China's communist government organization. Advisors from these were attached to military contingents at all levels.

14

People's Liberation Army

A Chinese Communist army that administered much of the country under the People's Republic of China.

15

Mass Line

An economic policy of Mao Zedong that led to the formation of agricultural cooperatives in 1955. The cooperatives became collective in 1956.

16

Great Leap Forward

An economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958. It proposed the industrialization of small-scale projects integrated into peasant communes. It led to economic disaster and ended in 1960.

17

pragmatists

Chinese Communist politicians such as Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Liu Shaoqui, who were determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level. They opposed the Great Leap Forward.

18

Zhou Enlai

After Mao Zedong, he was the most important leader of the Communist Party in China from the 1930s until his death in 1976. He was premier in China from 1954, and was notable as the most cosmopolitan and moderate of the inner circle of Communist leaders.

19

Liu Shaoqi

A Chinese Communist pragmatist. With Deng Xiaoping, he came to power in 1959 after Mao was replaced, and was determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level. He was purged in 1966 as Mao returned to power.

20

Deng Xiaoping

One of the more pragmatic, least ideological of the major Communist leaders of China. He joined the party as a young man in the 1920s, survived the legendary Long March and persecution during the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, and emerged as China's most influential leader in the early 1980s.

21

Jiang Qing

The wife of Mao Zedong, she was one of the Gang of Four, opposed pragmatists, and supported the Cultural Revolution of 1965. She was arrested and imprisoned for life in 1976.

22

Cultural Revolution

A movement initiated in 1965 by Mao Zedong to restore his dominance over pragmatists. He used mobs to ridicule Mao's political rivals; the campaign was called off in 1968.

23

Red Guard

Student brigades used by Mao Zedong and his political allies during the Cultural Revolution to discredit Mao's political enemies.

24

Gang of Four

Jiang Qing and four political allies who attempted to seize control of the Communist government in China from the pragmatists. They were arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1976 following Mao Zedong's death.

25

Tayson Rebellion

A peasant revolution in southern Vietnam during the late 1770s. It succeeded in toppling the Nguyen dynasty, and subsequently unseatd the Trinh dynasty of northern Vietnam.

26

Nguyen Anh (phon: nwin an)

The last surviving member of the Nguyen dynasty following the Tayson Rebellion in Vietnam. With French support he retook southern Vietnam, and drove Tayson from northern Vietnam by 1802. He proclaimed himself emperor, and established a capital at Hue, also known as Gia Long.

27

Minh Mang

The second emperor of a united Vietnam, he was the successor of Nguyen Anh, and ruled from 1820 to 1841. He placed an emphasis on Confucianism, and persecuted Catholics.

28

Vietnamese Nationalist Party

Also known as the Vietnamese Quoc Dan Dong or VNQDD, it was active in the 1920s as a revolutionary force committed to the violent overthrow of French colonialism.

29

Communist Party of Vietnam

Originally a wing of the nationalist movement, it became a primary nationalist party after the decline of VNQDD in 1929. It was led in the late 1920s by Nguyen Ai Quoc, alias Ho Chi Minh .

30

Ho Chi Minh

Also known as Nguyen Ai Quoc, he led the Vietnamese Communist Party in a struggle for liberation from French and US dominance, and to unify north and south Vietnam.

31

Viet Minh

The Communist-dominated Vietnamese nationalist movement that operated out of a base in southern China during WW2. It employed guerilla tactics similar to the Maoists in China.

32

Vo Nguyen Giap

A chief military commander of the Viet Minh and architect of the Vietnamese victory over the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.

33

Dien Bien Phu

The most significant victory of the Viet Minh over French colonial forces in 1954, it gave the Viet Minh control over northern Vietnam.

34

Ngo Dinh Diem

A political leader of South Vietnam who was established as president with US support in the 1950s and opposed the Communist government of northern Vietnam. He was overthrown by a military coup approved by the US.

35

Viet Cong

A name given by the Diem regime to the communist guerrilla movement in southern Vietnam. It was reorganized with northern Vietnamese assistance as the National Liberation Front in 1958.