Chpt. 22, Asian Transitions Amid Global Change Flashcards Preview

AP World Learning > Chpt. 22, Asian Transitions Amid Global Change > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt. 22, Asian Transitions Amid Global Change Deck (23)
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1
Q

caravels

A

slender, long-hulled vessels used by the Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; they were key to the development of the Portuguese trading empire in Asia

2
Q

Asian sea trading network

A

prior to the intervention of Europeans, this consisted of three zones: an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone based on cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone based on paper, porcelain, and silks

3
Q

mercantilists

A

economic theorists that stressed governments’ promotion of the limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe

4
Q

factories

A

European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout the Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce

5
Q

Ormuz

A

a Portuguese factory (fortified trading town) located at the southern end of the Persian Gulf; it was the site for forcible Portuguese entry into the Asian sea network

6
Q

Goa

A

a Portuguese factory located on the western Indian coast; site for forcible entry into the Asian sea trade network

7
Q

Batavia

A

a Dutch fortress located after 1620 on the island of Java; it was established to facilitate trade, as well as control over trade

8
Q

Dutch trading empire

A

the system that extended into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products that were more easily controllable (as opposed to Portuguese attempts at control over the entire seagoing economy)

9
Q

Luzon

A

a northern island of the Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s, it was the site of a major Catholic missionary effort

10
Q

Mindanao

A

a southern island of the Philippines; a Muslim kingdom that was able to successfully resist Spanish conquest

11
Q

Francis Xavier

A

a Spanish Jesuit missionary who worked in India in the 1540s among the lower caste groups, but who made little headway among the elites

12
Q

Robert di Nobili

A

an Italian Jesuit missionary who worked in India during the early 1600s and introduced the strategy of converting the elites first; his strategy was later widely adopted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia, but his mission in India eventually failed

13
Q

Hongwu

A

the first Ming emperor in 1368, he was of peasant lineage, and his original name was Zhu Yuanzhang; he drove out Mongol influence, and restored the position of the scholar gentry

14
Q

Macao

A

one of the two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty

15
Q

Canton

A

one of two port cities in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty

16
Q

Matteo Ricci

A

along with Adam Schall, he was a Jesuit scholar in the court of the Ming emperors and a skilled scientist; he attempted to proselytize among the Chinese, and was tolerated for other reasons, based on his knowledge in science and math; nevertheless, he won few converts to Christianity

17
Q

Adam Schall

A

along with Matteo Ricci, he was a Jesuit scholar in the court of the Ming emperors and a skilled scientist; he attempted to proselytize among the Chinese, and was tolerated for other reasons, based on his knowledge in science and math; nevertheless, he won few converts to Christianity

18
Q

Chongzhen

A

the last of the Ming emperors, he committed suicide in 1644 in the face of a Jurchen capture of the Forbidden City at Beijing

19
Q

Oda Nobunaga

A

a Japanese daimyo who was the first to make extensive use of firearms and who in 1573 deposed the last of the Ashikaga shoguns, unifying much of central Honshu under his command

20
Q

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

A

a general under Nobunaga who succeeded as the leading military power in central Japan and continued efforts to break the power of the daimyos, constructing a series of alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; he died in 1598

21
Q

Tokugawa Ieyasu

A

the vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he succeeded him as the most powerful military figure in Japan, was granted the title of shogun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa Shogunate, establishing political unity in Japan

22
Q

Deshima

A

an island in Nagasaki Bay that was the only port open to non-Japanese after the closure of islands in the 1640s; only Chinese and Dutch ships were permitted to enter

23
Q

School of National Learning

A

a new ideology that laid emphasis on Japan’s unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Chinese imports such as Confucianism; it was typical of Japan in the 18th century