Chpt. 28, Descent into the Abyss Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 28, Descent into the Abyss Deck (38)
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1
Q

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

A

heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo set in motion the events that started WW1

2
Q

Sarajevo

A

the administrative center of the Bosnian province of the Austrian Empire; the assassination there of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 started WW1

3
Q

Western Front

A

a front established in WW1 that generally ran along the line from Belgium to Switzerland, and which featured trench warfare and horrendous casualties for all sides in the conflict

4
Q

Nicholas 2

A

the tsar of Russia from 1894 to 1917 who forcefully suppressed political opposition and resisted constitutional government; he was deposed by revolution in 1917

5
Q

Gallipoli

A

a peninsula south of Istanbul that was the site of the decisive 1915 Turkish victory over Australian and New Zealand forces under British command during WW1

6
Q

Armenian genocide

A

an assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against the Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East

7
Q

Eastern Front

A

the most mobile of the fronts established during WW1; after early successes here, military defeats led to the downfall of the tsarist government in Russia

8
Q

Adolf Hitler

A

the Nazi leader of fascist Germany who from 1933 to his suicide in 1945 created a strongly centralized state in Germany; he eliminated all rivals, and launched Germany on an aggressive foreign policy leading up to WW2, and was responsible for the genocide of many European Jews

9
Q

Georges Clemenceau

A

the French prime minister in the last years of WW1 and during the Versailles Conference of 1919; he pushed for heavy reparations from the Germans

10
Q

David Lloyd George

A

the prime minister of Great Britain who headed a coalition government through much of WW1 and the turbulent years that followed

11
Q

self-determination

A

the right of people in a region to decide whether to be independent or not

12
Q

League of Nations

A

an international diplomatic and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended WW; it was one of the chief goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the US in the peace negotiations, but the US never became a member

13
Q

National Congress Party

A

a party in India that grew out of regional association of Western-educated Indians, and was originally centered in the cities of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and Madras; it became a political party in 1885, and focused on the nationalist movement in India; it governed through most of India’s postcolonial period

14
Q

B. G. Tilak

A

a man who believed that nationalism in India should be based on appeals to Hindu religiosity and who worked to promote the restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions; he offended Muslims and other religious groups, and was the first populist leader in the Indian nationalist movement

15
Q

Morley-Minto reforms

A

reforms that provided educated Indians with considerably expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and all-India legislative councils

16
Q

Montagu-Chelmsford reforms

A

reforms that increased the powers of the Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial numbers of elected Indians; it was passed in 1919

17
Q

Rowlatt Act

A

an act that placed severe restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press that acted to offset the concession granted under the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919

18
Q

Mohandas Ghandi

A

a man who led a sustained all-India campaign for independence from the British Empire after WW1; he stressed nonviolent and aggressive mass protest

19
Q

satyagraha

A

literally, “truth force,” it was the strategy of nonviolent protest that was developed by Mohandas Gandhi and his followers in India; it was later deployed throughout the colonized world and in the US

20
Q

Lord Cromer

A

a British proconsul in khedival Egypt from 1883 to 1907 who pushed for economic reforms that reduced but failed to eliminate the debts of the khedival regime

21
Q

effendi

A

a class of prosperous business and professional urban families in khedival Egypt who generally favored Egyptian independence

22
Q

Dinshawi incident

A

a clash between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers in 1906 that arose over a hunting accident along the Nile River where the wife of a prayer leader of a mosque was accidentally shot by army officers hunting pigeons, leading to a mass Egyptian protest movement that was exacerbated further by a harsh British response

23
Q

Ataturk

A

also known as Mustafa Kemal, he was the leader of the Turkish republic formed in 1923, and he reformed the Turkish nation using Western models

24
Q

Hussein

A

the sheriff of Mecca from 1908 to 1917, he used the British promise of independence to convince Arabs to support Britain against the Turks in WW1, and he was angered by Britain’s failure to keep their promise; he died in 1931

25
Q

mandates

A

governments entrusted to European nations in the Middle East in the aftermath of WW1; Britain occupied these in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine after 1922

26
Q

Zionists

A

members of a movement originating in eastern Europe during the 1860s and 1870s that argued that the Jews must return to a Middle Eastern holy land; it was eventually identified with the settlement of Palestine by Israelis

27
Q

Balfour Declaration

A

a British minister Lord Balfour’s promise of support for the establishment of a Jewish settlement in Palestine issued in 1917

28
Q

Leon Pinsker

A

a European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into Christian European nations was impossible; he argued for a return to the Middle Eastern Holy Land

29
Q

Theodor Herzl

A

an Austrian journalist and Zionist who formed the World Zionist Organization in 1897; he promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and the formation of a Jewish state

30
Q

Alfred Dreyfus

A

a French Jew falsely accused of passing military secrets to the Germans; his mistreatment and exile to Devil’s Island provided flash-point for years of bitter debate between the left and the right in France

31
Q

World Zionist Organization

A

an organization founded by Theodore Herzl to promote Jewish migration to and settlement in Palestine, to form a Zionist state

32
Q

Wafd Party

A

an Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles treaty negotiations following WW1; it was led by Sa’d Zaghlul, and negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922

33
Q

Sa’d Zaghlul

A

the leader of Egypt’s nationalist Wafd party; their negotiations with Britain led to limited Egyptian independence in 1922

34
Q

Marcus Garvey

A

an African American political leader who had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s

35
Q

W. E. B. Du Bois

A

an African American political leader who had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s

36
Q

pan-African

A

an organization that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and the African diaspora before and after WW1

37
Q

négritude

A

a literary movement in Africa that attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture and that celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; it was associated with the origins of African nationalist movements

38
Q

Léopold Sédar Senghor

A

one of the post-WW1 writers of the négritude literary movement that urged pride in African values; he was the president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980