Chpt. 33, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia Flashcards Preview

AP World Learning > Chpt. 33, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt. 33, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia Deck (21)
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1
Q

Bangladesh

A

An independent nation founded in 1972 that was formerly East Pakistan.

2
Q

Indira Gandhi

A

The daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi), she was installed as what was hoped to be a figurehead prime minister by the Congress party bosses in 1966. However, she proved a strong-willed and astute politician. She soon became the central figure in Indian politics, a position that she maintained throughout the 1970s and passed on to her sons.

3
Q

Corazon Aquino

A

The first president of the Philippines in the post-Marcos era of the late 1980s. She served from 1986 to 1992, and was one of the key leaders in the popular movement that toppled the dictator. Her husband was assassinated by thugs in the pay of the Marcos regime.

4
Q

Jawaharlal Nehru

A

One of Ghandi’s disciples, he governed India after independence in 1947. He was committed to a program of social reform and economic development, and preserved civil rights and democracy.

5
Q

Benazir Bhutto

A

Twice the prime minister of Pakistan in the 1980s and 1990s, she first ran for office to avenge her father’s execution by the military clique that was then in power.

6
Q

religious revivalism

A

An approach to religious belief and practice that stresses the literal interpretation of text(s) sacred of the religion in question and the application of their precepts to all aspects of social life. It was increasingly associated with revivalist movements in a number of world religions, including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Hinduism.

7
Q

primary products

A

Food or industrial crops for which there is a high demand in industrialized economies. The prices of such products tend to fluctuate widely, and the products are typically the primary exports of Third World economies.

8
Q

neocolonial economy

A

The industrialized nations’ continued dominance of the world economy even after de-colonization.

9
Q

Gamal Abdul Nasser

A

A leader who took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952. He enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment. He ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956.

10
Q

Free Officers movement

A

A military nationalist movement in Egypt that was founded in the 1930s. It often allied with the Muslim Brotherhood, and it led a coup to seize the Egyptian government from the khedives in July 1956.

11
Q

Muslim Brotherhood

A

An Egyptian nationalist movement founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928. It was committed to a fundamentalist movement in Islam and fostered strikes and urban riots against he khedival governments.

12
Q

Anwar Sadat

A

The successor to Gamal Abdul Nasser as ruler of Egypt, he acted to dismantle costly state programs, and accepted a peace treaty with Israel in 1973. He opened Egypt to investment by Western nations.

13
Q

Hosni Mubarak

A

The President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011, he succeeded Anwar Sadat and continued his policies of cooperation with the West. He was overthrown by an popular uprising supported by the Muslim Brotherhood in 2011.

14
Q

Green Revolution

A

The introduction of improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation as a means of producing higher yields in crops such as rice, wheat, and corn. It was particularly important in the densely populated countries of Asia.

15
Q

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

A

The religious ruler of Iran following the revolution of 1979 to expel the Pahlavi shah of Iran. He emphasized religious purification, and tried to eliminate Western influences and establish a purely Islamic government.

16
Q

homelands

A

Under apartheid, these areas in South Africa were designated for ethno-linguistic groups within the black population. Such areas tended to be overpopulated and poverty-stricken.

17
Q

African National Congress

A

A black political organization within South Africa that pressed for an end to policies of apartheid. It sought open democracy until the 1990s, when open democracy was finally achieved in South Africa.

18
Q

Walter Sisulu

A

A black Afircan leader who, along with Nelson Mandela, opposed the apartheid system in South Africa.

19
Q

Nelson Mandela

A

A long-imprisoned leader of the African National Congress party, he worked with the ANC leadership and with F.W. de Klerk’s supporters to dismantle the apartheid system from the mid-1980s onward. In 1994 he became the first black prime minister of South Africa after the ANC and won the first genuinely democratic election in the country’s history.

20
Q

Steve Biko

A

An organizer of the Black Consciousness movement in South Africa in opposition to apartheid. He was murdered while in police custody.

21
Q

F. W. de Klerk

A

A white South African prime minister in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Working with Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress, de Klerk helped to dismantle the apartheid system and opened the way for a democratically elected government that represented all South Africans for the first time.