Chpt. 11, Precolonial Americas Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 11, Precolonial Americas Deck (24)
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1
Q

Indian

A

a misnomer created by Columbus referring to indigenous peoples of the New World; it implies social and ethnic commonality among Native Americas that did not exist; it is still used to describe Native Americans

2
Q

Toltec

A

succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1,000 CE; declined after 1,200 CE

3
Q

Topilzin

A

a religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs in the 10th century; he was dedicated to god Quetzalcoatl, and after losing a struggle for power, went into exile in the Yucatan peninsula

4
Q

Quetzacoatl

A

a Mayan and later Toltec deity known as the Feathered Serpent, it was adopted by Aztecs as a major god

5
Q

Tenochtitlan

A

founded c. 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco, it became the center of Aztec power and joined with Tlacopan and Texcoco in 1434 to form a triple alliance that controlle dmost of central plateau of Mesoamerica

6
Q

Tlaloc

A

the major god of the Aztecs; associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle; god of rain

7
Q

Huitzilopochtli

A

the Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of the cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with the old sun god

8
Q

Nezhualcoyotl

A

the leading Aztec king of the 15th century

9
Q

chinampas

A

beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to creat “floating islands”; system of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs

10
Q

pochteca

A

special merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items

11
Q

calpulli

A

clans in Aztec society that later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors

12
Q

ayllus

A

households in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; they traced descent from some common, sometimes mythical ancestor

13
Q

Twantinsuyu

A

the word for Inca empire; the Inca ruled the region from present-day Columbia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina

14
Q

split inheritance

A

Inca practice of kingship descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of cult of dead Inca’s mummy

15
Q

Temple of the Sun

A

an Inca religious center located at Cuzco in the Inca Empire; it was the center of state religion and held mummies of past Inca

16
Q

tambos

A

way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages

17
Q

mita

A

labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control

18
Q

Inca socialism

A

a view created by Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia; an image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole

19
Q

yanas

A

a class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the inca or the Inca nobility

20
Q

quipu

A

system of knotted strings used by the Incas to record information (they did not have writing); it contained mainly information for censuses and financial records

21
Q

Pachacuti

A

a ruler of Incan society from 1438 to 1471; he launched a series of military campaigns that gave the Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca

22
Q

Olmec

A

one of the oldest and most significant Central American civilizations, it is considered a “mother civilization” in the Americas in much the same way that Mesopotamia is in the Mediterranean; relatively little is known about it; unlike many other centers, it arose without the benefit of a major river nearby

23
Q

Andean

A

describes cultures in western South America

24
Q

Chavin

A

an Andean civilization that emerged around 1,000BC and dominated the coastal plain and Andean foothills of what is today Peru