Chpt. 19, Early Latin America Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 19, Early Latin America Deck (44):
1

Ferdinand of Aragon

along with Isabella of Castile, he was a monarch of the largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; his marriage to Isabella created a united Spain; he was responsible for the reconquest of Granada, and the initiation of exploration in the New World

2

Isabella of Castile

along with Ferdinand of Aragon, she was a monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; her marriage to Ferdinand created a united Spain; she was responsible for the reconquest of Granada, and the initiation of exploration in the New World

3

Caribbean

the first area of Spanish exploration and settlement; it served as an experimental region for the nature of the Spanish colonial experience; the encomienda system of colonial management initiated here

4

Hispaniola

the first island in the Caribbean settled by the Spaniards; this settlement was founded by Columbus on his second voyage to the New World; it was a Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in the New World

5

encomienda

grants of land made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America that gave the owner the right to exploit Native Americans on the land as laborers; they were the basis for the earliest forms of coerced labor in the Spanish colonies

6

encomendero

the holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor on an encomienda; they were also responsible for the conversion of the encomienda into the church

7

Bartolomé de Las Casas

a Dominican friar who supported the peaceful conversion of the Native American population of the Spanish colonies; he opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights; his reports led to the eventual replacement of the encomienda system with repartamiento

8

Hernán Cortés

led an expedition of 600 to the coast of Mexico in 1519; he is the conquistador responsible for the defeat of the Aztec Empire; he captured Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital

9

Moctezuma 2

the last independent Aztec emperor; he was killed during Hernán Cortés’ conquest of Tenochtitlan

10

Mexico City

the capital of New Spain; it was built on the ruins of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan

11

New Spain

the Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica; it included most of central Mexico, and was based on the imperial system of the Aztecs

12

Francisco Vázques de Coronado

the leader of a Spanish expedition into the northern frontier region of New Spain; he entered what is now the United States in search of mythical cities of gold

13

Pedro de Valdivia

a Spanish conquistador; he conquered the Araucanian Indians of Chile and established the city of Santiago in 1541

14

mita

labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the region that all communities were expected to contribute; this was an essential aspect of Inca imperial control that was adopted by the Europeans, who used it for their own purposes

15

Potosí

a mine located in upper Peru (modern Bolivia); it was the largest of the New World silver mines; it produced 80% of all Peruvian silver

16

Huancavelica

the location of the greatest deposit of mercury in South America; it aided in American silver production, and was linked with Potosí

17

haciendas

rural estates in Spanish colonies in the New World; they produced agricultural products for consumers in America, and were the basis of wealth and power for the local aristocracy

18

consulado and of seville

a merchant guild of Seville that enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over good shipped to America, and handled much of the silver received in return (this is the term for a merchant guild in general, and the important one to remember is that mentioned here, the one in Seville)

19

galleons

large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain, they were the basis for the convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion

20

Treaty of Tordesillas

signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal, this treaty clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession in the New World; it reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal, and granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain

21

letrados

these were university-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; they formed the judicial core of the Spanish colonial bureaucracy, and exercised both legislative and administrative functions

22

Recopilación

a body of laws established in 1681 for Spanish possessions in the New World; they were the basis of law in the Indies

23

Council of the Indies

a body within the Castilian (of Castille) government that issued all laws and advised the king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World

24

viceroyalties

two major divisions of Spanish colonies in the New World; one was based in Lima, and the other in Mexico City; they were direct representatives of the king, and ruled in his place (because the actual king was far way in Spain)

25

viceroys

senior government officials in Spanish America; they ruled as direct representatives of the king over the principal administrative units, or viceroyalties; they were usually high ranking Spanish nobles with previous military governmental experience; the Portuguese also used some who resided in Goa for their possessions in the Indian Ocean, and then after the mid-17th century for their colony in Brazil

26

audiencia

the royal court of appeals established in the Spanish colonies of the New World; there were 10 in each viceroyalty; they were part of the colonial administrative system, and were staffed by professional magistrates

27

Sor Juana Inés

an author, poet, and musician of New Spain; she eventually gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters

28

Pedro Alvares Cabral

a Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; he was blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil

29

capitancies

strips of land along the Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; they enjoyed limited success in developing the colony

30

Paulistas

backwoodsmen from Sãu Paulo in Brazil; they penetrated the Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during the 17th century

31

Minas Gerais

a region of Brazil located in the mountainous interior where gold strikes were discovered in 1695; it became the location for a gold rush

32

Rio de Janeiro

a Brazilian port that was close to the mines of Minas Gerais, and which grew in importance with the Minas Gerais gold strikes; it became the colonial capital in 1763

33

sociedad de castas

the American social system, which was based on racial origins; Europeans/whites were at the top, black slaves or Native Americans at the bottom, and mixed races in the middle; although it was race based, it was also based on other factors, such as wealth, and those in the lower racial castes who were wealthy could move up the system

34

peninsulares

people living in the New World Spanish colonies who were born in Spain, they were at the very top of the caste system

35

amigos del pais (friends of country)

clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; they flourished during the 18th century; they were focused on promoting material improvements rather than political reform

36

War of the Spanish Succession

this resulted from the Bourbon family’s succession to the Spanish throne in 1701; it was ended by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; the result was the recognition of the Bourbons as rulers, the loss of some lands from the Spanish, and grants of certain commercial rights in Spanish colonies to the English and the French

37

Charles the 3rd

a Spanish enlightened monarch; he ruled from 1759 to 1788; he instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire

38

José de Gálvez

a Spanish minister of the West Indies and a chief architect of colonial reform; he moved to eliminate Creoles from the upper bureaucracy of the colonies, expelled the Jesuits, and created intendants for the local governments, among other things

39

Marquis of Pombal

the prime minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; he acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil, expelled the Jesuits, enacted fiscal reforms, and established monopoly companies to stimulate the global economy, among other things

40

Comunero Revolt

one of the popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Columbia) in 1781; it was suppressed as a result of divisions among the rebels

41

Tupac Amaru

he was the mestizo leader of an Indian revolt in Peru; he was supported by many among the lower social classes, but the revolt eventually failed because the Creoles feared real social revolution

42

Columbian Exchange

this is the exchange of ideas, technology, diseases, crops, and institutions that took place between the colonies and the colonizers during the era of colonization in the Atlantic

43

miscegenation

intermarriage between whites and nonwhites; this occurred in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and the result was the growth of the mestizo and mulatto populations

44

creoles

people of European descent born in the New World, they dominated local Latin American economies and ranked just beneath the peninsulares