Chpt. 7, Abbasid and Southeast asia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 7, Abbasid and Southeast asia Deck (25)
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1
Q

lateen sails

A

triangular sails attached to the masts of dhows by long booms, or yard arms, which extended diagonally high across the fore and aft of the ship

2
Q

al-Mahdi

A

the third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among the Shi’a to the Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve the problem of succession

3
Q

Harun al-Rashid

A

one of the great Islamic rulers of the Abbasid era; during his rule, courtly excesses grew even greater; nonetheless, his rule was decadent

4
Q

Buyids

A

a regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled the Abbasid Empire under the title of sultan (“victorious”); retained the Abbasids as figurehead rulers, while they held real control

5
Q

Seljuk Turks

A

nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in the name of the Abbasid caliphs from the mid-11th century forward (took over from the Buyids)

6
Q

Crusades

A

a series of military adventures launched by western Christians initially intended to free the Holy Land from the Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms; later were used for other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy

7
Q

Saladin

A

a Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century; re-conquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam

8
Q

Ibn Khaldun

A

a Muslim historian; developed the concept of dynasties of nomadic conquerors, theorizing that they had a cycle of three generations, each one farther removed from the warrior/desert roots; in this theory, the first ruler was strong (1st-generation), the 2nd weak (2nd generation, but still has memory from father), the 3rd dissolute (unconcerned with ruling, doesn’t command authority)

9
Q

Sha-Nama

A

written by Firdawsi in the late 10th and early 11th centuries; relates the history of Persia from its creation to the Islamic conquests

10
Q

ulama

A

Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; increasingly opposed to non-Islamic ideas and scientific thinking

11
Q

al-Ghazali

A

brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Qur’anic traditions; not entirely accepted by the ulama (like Peter Abelard in that they both tried to reconcile rationalism and religion, and were both at least partly shunned)

12
Q

Mongols

A

central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the last Abbasid caliph

13
Q

Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan)

A

born in the 1170s in the decades following the death of Kabul Khan; was elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for the conquest of northern kingdoms of China, as well as territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world

14
Q

Hulegu

A

ruler of the Ilkhan khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for the capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1258

15
Q

Mamluks (or Mamluk Turks)

A

Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted the Mongol advance

16
Q

Muhammad Ibn Qasim

A

an Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of the Umayyad Empire

17
Q

Mahmud of Ghazni

A

the third ruler of the Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of the wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims a reputation for intolerance and aggression

18
Q

Muhammad of Ghur

A

a military commander of Persian extraction who ruled a small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of the Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control

19
Q

Qutb-ud-din Aibak

A

lieutenant of Muhammad of Ghur; established a kingdom in India with its capital at Delphi; proclaimed himself Sultan of India

20
Q

bhaktic cults

A

Hindu groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; the most widely worshipped gods were Shiva and Vishnu

21
Q

Mira Bai

A

a celebrated Hindu writer of religious poetry; reflected the openness of bhaktic cults to women

22
Q

Kabir

A

a Muslim mystic; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam

23
Q

Srivijaya Empire

A

a trading empire centered on the Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled the trade of the empire; it’s Buddhist government was resistant to Muslim missionaries, and only after it fell did southeastern Asia open up to Muslim conversions

24
Q

Malacca

A

a Portuguese factory (fortified trade town) located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center for trade among the southeastern Asian islands

25
Q

Demak

A

the most powerful of the trading states on the north coast of Java; converted to Islam and served as a point of dissemination to other ports