Chpt. 23, Emergence of Industrialism in the West Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 23, Emergence of Industrialism in the West Deck (33)
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1
Q

age of revolution

A

period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848

2
Q

population revolution

A

a huge growth in population in western Europe beginning about 1730, it was a prelude to the Industrial Revolution; the population of France increased by 50 percent, and the population of England and Prussia by 100 percent

3
Q

proto-industrialization

A

a preliminary shift away from agricultural economies in Europe; workers became full or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work order, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; it was a prelude to the Industrial Revolution

4
Q

American Revolution

A

a rebellion of English American colonies along the Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783, it resulted in independence for former British colonies and the eventual formation of the United States of America

5
Q

French Revolution

A

a revolution in France between 1789 and 1800 that resulted in the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy and old regimes, and that ended with the establishment of the French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; it was the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe

6
Q

Louis XVI

A

a Bourbon monarch of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution

7
Q

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

A

a declaration adopted during the liberal phase of the French Revolution in 1789 that stated the fundamental equality of all French citizens, and that later became a political source for other liberal movements

8
Q

guillotine

A

introduced as a method of humane execution, it was utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror

9
Q

nationalism

A

a political viewpoint with origins in western Europe that often allied with other “isms”; it urged the importance of national unity and valued a collective identity based on culture, and or ethnic origin

10
Q

Napoleon Bonaparte

A

a man who rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution and eventually became a general; he led a coup that ended the French Revolution, and established the French Empire under his rule until he was defeated and deposed in 1815

11
Q

Congress of Vienna

A

a meeting in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars in 1814-15 to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes

12
Q

conservative

A

a political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century, it opposed revolutionary goals and advocated the restoration of monarchy and the defense of the church

13
Q

liberal

A

a political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century that stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government, and which urged the importance of constitutional rule and parliaments

14
Q

radical

A

a political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century that advocated broader voting rights than liberals and in some cases advocated outright democracy; it urged reforms in favor of the lower classes

15
Q

Greek Revolution

A

a rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820 that was a key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans

16
Q

Reform Bill on 1832

A

legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class, but that failed to produce democracy in Britain

17
Q

Chartist movement

A

an attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840s, it demanded reform beyond the Reform Bill of 1832 and was incorporated into a series of petitions, but the movement ultimately failed

18
Q

Louis Pasteur

A

a French scientist who discovered the relationship between germs and disease in the 19th century, leading to better sanitation

19
Q

American Civil War

A

fought from 1861 to 1865, it was the first application of the Industrial Revolution to warfare and it resulted in the abolition of slavery in the United States and the reunification of the North and South

20
Q

Transformismo

A

a political system in late-19th century Italy that promoted alliances of conservatives and liberals, and in which parliamentary deputies simply accepted the status quo once in Rome

21
Q

social question

A

issues relating to repressed classes in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution, particularly workers and women, and which became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870

22
Q

socialism

A

a political movement with origins in western Europe during the 19th century, it urged an attack on private property in the name of equality, and it maintained that the state should control the means of production, ending the capitalist exploitation of the working man

23
Q

Karl Marx

A

a German socialist who blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian and saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; he preached the necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship

24
Q

revisionism

A

socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine and that believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions

25
Q

feminist movements

A

movements that sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and high education, came to concentrate on the right to vote, and won support particularly for middle-class women; it was active in western Europe at the end of the 19th century, and was revived in light of others issues in the 1960s

26
Q

mass leisure culture

A

an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution that was based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports

27
Q

Charles Darwin

A

a biologist who developed the theory of evolution of species (1859) and argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival

28
Q

Albert Einstein

A

a man who developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; after 1900 he created the theory of relativity

29
Q

Sigmund Freud

A

a Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human subconscious and argued that behavior is determined by impulses

30
Q

romanticism

A

an artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe which held that emotion and impression, not reason, are the keys to the mysteries of the human experience and nature, and which sought to portray passions rather than calm reflection

31
Q

Triple Alliance

A

an alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century, it was part of the European alliance system and the balance of world power prior to World War 1

32
Q

Triple Entente

A

an alliance between Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 19th century, it was part of the European alliance system and the balance of world power prior to World War 1

33
Q

Balkan nationalism

A

movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; it provoked a series of crises within the European alliance systems and eventually led to World War 1