Chpt. 32, Latin America Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 32, Latin America Deck (14)
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1
Q

PRI

A

Short for the “Party of the Institutionalized Revolution,” it was the dominant political party in Mexico, and developed during the 1920s and 1930s. It incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors, and controlled other poltical organizations in Mexico.

2
Q

Zapatistas

A

A guerilla movement named in honor of Emiliano Zapata. It originated in 1994 in Mexico’s southern state of Chiapas; the government responed with a combination of repression and negotiation.

3
Q

Juan José Arevalo

A

Elected president of Guatemala in 1944, he began a series of socialist reforms including land reform, and a nationalist program directed against foreign-owned companies such as United Fruit Company.

4
Q

United Fruit Company

A

The most important foreign economic concern in Guatemala during the 20th century. Land reform that was would’ve hurt this company caused US intervention in Guatemalan politics, leading to the ouster of reform government in 1954.

5
Q

Fulgencio Batista

A

The dictator of Cuba from 1934 to 1944; he returned to the presidency in 1952, and was ousted from the government in a revolution led by Fidel Castro.

6
Q

Fidel Castro

A

A Cuban revolutionary who overthrew the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1958 and initiated a series of socialist reforms. He came to be very dependent on the Soviet Union.

7
Q

Ernesto “Che” Guevara

A

An Argentine revolutionary who aided Fidel Castro in the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista in Cuba. He died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967.

8
Q

liberation theology

A

A combination of Catholic theology and socialist principles that was advocated as a method to bring about improved conditions for the poor in Latin America in the 20th century.

9
Q

Salvador Allende

A

The President of Chile, he nationalized industries and banks, and sponsored peasant and worker expropriations of lands and foreign-owned factories. He was overthrown in 1973 by a revolt of Chilean military with the support of the US.

10
Q

Sandinista Party

A

A Nicaraguan socialist movement named after Augusto Sandino; it successfully carried out a socialist revolution in Nicaragua during the 1980s.

11
Q

Augusto Sandino

A

He led a guerrilla resistance movement against US occupation forces in Nicaragua. He was assassinated by (US trained) the Nicaraguan National Guard in 1934, and became a national hero and symbol of resistance to US influence in Central America.

12
Q

banana republics

A

A term given to governments supported or created by the US in Central America. They were believed to be either corrupt or subservient to US interests.

13
Q

Good Neighbor Policy

A

Established by Franklin D. Roosevelt for dealing with Latin America in 1933, this policy intended to halt direct intervention in Latin American politics.

14
Q

Alliance for Progress

A

This was begun in 1961 by the United States to develop Latin America, as an alternative to radical political solutions. It enjoyed only limited success, and failed to develop programs that led to a renewal of direct intervention.