Chpt. 18, The Rise of Russia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 18, The Rise of Russia Deck (13)
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1
Q

Ivan the 3rd

A

also known as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik the Rus, and was responsible for freeing Russia from the Mongols in 1462; at this point, he took the title of tsar, which means “Caesar” in Russian

2
Q

Ivan the 4th

A

also known as Ivan the Terrible, he confirmed the power of the tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of the boyars (aristocrats); he continued a policy of Russian expansion, and established contacts with western European commerce and culture; earned his nickname by killing or exiling many of the boyars, whom he suspected of conspiracy, as well as his tendency to fly into violent rages

3
Q

boyars

A

the Russian aristocratic class

4
Q

cossacks

A

peasant recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in the south; they combined agriculture and military conquests, and spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements

5
Q

Time of Troubles

A

this period followed the death of the Russian tsar Ivan the 4th in the 17th century without an heir (partially because he killed many potential heirs); the boyars attempted to use the vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; this period ended with the selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613

6
Q

Romanov dynasty

A

the dynasty established in 1613 with the selection of Mikhail, and ending the Time of Troubles, it ruled Russia until 1917

7
Q

Alexis Romanov

A

the Russian heir to the throne at the time of the Russian revolution and the youngest member of the royal family at the time of their execution (he was a male, despite his name)

8
Q

Old Believers

A

Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many of them were exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization

9
Q

Peter 1, aka Peter the Great

A

he was the son of Alexis Romanov (17th century), and he ruled from 1689 to 1725; he continued the growth of absolutism and conquest; he more definitively changed selected aspects of economy and culture through the imitation of western European models

10
Q

Catherine the Great

A

a German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century who ruled after the assassination of her husband (who was the nephew of Peter the Great’s youngest daughter); she gave the appearance of enlightened rule, accepted some Western cultural influences, maintained the nobility as a service aristocracy, and granted the nobility new power over the peasantry

11
Q

Pugachev Rebellion (led by Emelian Pugachev)

A

during the 1770s in the reign of Catherine the Great, this was a rebellion led by a cossack who claimed to be Peter the Great (Peter was long since dead); he was eventually crushed; this kind of occurrence was typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter

12
Q

partition of Poland

A

the division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; this eliminated Poland as an independent state, and was part of the expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe

13
Q

serf

A

a landed peasant who worked on the land of his lord and owed his labor in return for the lord providing him with the things he needed to survive