Chpt. 29, The World Between Wars Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 29, The World Between Wars Deck (43):
1

cubist movement

a 20th century art style that is best represented by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso, who rendered familiar objects in geometric shapes

2

Benito Mussolini

an Italian fascist leader after WW1 who created the first fascist government based on an aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories

3

fascism

a political philosophy that became predominant in Italy and then Germany during the 1920s and 1930s that attacked the weaknesses of democracy and the corruption of capitalism, that promised vigorous foreign and military programs, and that undertook state control of the economy to reduce social friction

4

syndicalism

an economic and political system based on the organization of labor; it was imported in Latin America from European political movements, and was a militant force in Latin American politics

5

Mexican Revolution

a revolution fought over a period of almost ten years from 1910, and which resulted in the ousting of Porfirio Díaz from power by opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata

6

Porfirio Díaz

one of Juárez's generals who was elected president of Mexico in 1876, and who dominated Mexican politics for 35 years, imposing a strong central government

7

Francisco Madero

a moderate democratic reformer in Mexico who was first arrested by Porfirio Díaz, then initiated a revolution against Díaz when he was released from prison; he temporarily gained power, but was removed and assassinated in 1913

8

Emiliano Zapata

a Mexican revolutionary and military commander in northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution who succeeded along with Emiliano Zapata in removing Díaz from power in 1911, and who also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta

9

Victoriano Huerta

a man who attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico following the removal of Madero in 1913; he was forced from power in 1914 by Villa and Zapata

10

Alvaro Obregón

a man who emerged as the leader of the Mexican government in 1915, and was elected president in 1920

11

Mexican Constitution of 1917

this constitution promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; it marked the formal end of the Mexican Revolution

12

Diego Rivera

a Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution who was famous for his murals painted on the walls of public buildings that mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology

13

José Clemente

a Mexican muralist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; like Rivera’s, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology

14

Cristeros

a conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s that was most active in central Mexico, and that attempted to halt the slide toward secularism; this movement resulted in armed violence

15

Alexander Kerensky

revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917 who sought the development of parliamentary rule, as well as religious freedom

16

Red Army

a military organization that was constructed under the leadership of Leon Trotsky, a Bolshevik follower of Lenin; it made use of people of humble background whose abilities could nevertheless be tapped

17

New Economic Policy

initiated by Lenin in 1921, with this the state continued to set basic economic policies, but efforts were now combined with individual initiatives, including considerable freedom for small business owners and peasant landowners; as a result, food production recovered

18

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

a federal system of socialist republics that was established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia, and was firmly controlled by the Communist party; it diminished nationalities protests under the Bolsheviks and was dissolved in 1991

19

Supreme Soviet

the parliament of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, it was elected by universal suffrage, but was actually controlled by the Communist party; it served to ratify party decisions

20

Joseph Stalin

the successor to Lenin as the head of the U.S.S.R., he had a strongly nationalist view of communism, represented an anti-Western strain of Russian tradition, and crushed opposition to his rule; he established a series of five-year plans to replace the New Economic Policy that fostered agricultural collectivization; he led the U.S.S.R. through WW2 and furthered the cold war with western Europe and the US, eventually dying in 1953

21

Comintern

an international office of communism under U.S.S.R. dominance that was established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere; aka the Communist International office

22

collectivization

the creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings that allowed more efficient control over peasants, though it often lowered food production; it was part of Stalin’s economic and political planning, and was often adopted in other communist regimes

23

Yuan Shikai

a warlord in northern china after the fall of the Qing Dynasty who hoped to seize the imperial throne, and succeeded in becoming the president of China after 1912; he eventually resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916

24

May Fourth Movement

the resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919, and spawned a movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy, rejecting Confucianism

25

Li Dazhao

a Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy, and headed a study circle at the University of Beijing; he saw peasants as the vanguard of revolutionary communism in China

26

Mao Zedong

a Communist leader in revolutionary China who advocated rural reform and the role of the peasantry in Nationalist revolution; he was influenced by Li Dazhao, and led the Communist reaction against the Guomindang purges in the 1920s, culminating in the Long March of 1934; he seized control of all of mainland china by 1949, and initiated the Great Leap Forward in 1958

27

Guomindang

a Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919 that drew support from local warlords and the Chinese criminal underworld, and initially forged an alliance with the Communists in 1924; it was dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925

28

Whampoa Military Academy

founded in 1924, it was the military wing of the Guomindang; the first head of the academy was Chiang Kai-shek

29

Chiang Kai-shek

a military officer who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as the leader of the Guomindang or Nationalist party in China in the mid-1920s; he became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s, but his Nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China by the Communists after WW2

30

Long March

the Communist escape from Hunan province during the civil war with Guomindang in 1934; the center of Communist power was moved to Shaanxi province, firmly establishing Mao Zedong as the head of the Communist party in China

31

Great Depression

an international economic crisis following the first World War that began with the collapse of the US stock market in 1929; this was merely a symptom, however, and actual causes included the collapse of agricultural prices in the 1920s, the collapse of banking houses in the US and western Europe, and massive unemployment; this event contradicted the optimistic assumptions of the 19th century

32

Popular Front

a combination of socialist and communist political parties in France that won election in 1936, but were unable to take strong measures of social reform because of the continuing strength of conservatives; they fell from power in 1938

33

New Deal

US President Franklin Roosevelt’s precursor of the modern welfare state that included programs to combat economic depression, enacted a number of social insurance measures, and used government spending to stimulate the economy; this increased the power of the state and the state’s interference in US social and economic life

34

totalitarian state

a new kind of government in the 20the century that exercised massive, direct control over virtually all the activities of its subjects, and existed in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union

35

Gestapo

the secret police in Nazi Germany, they were known for brutal tactics

36

Spanish Civil War

a war pitting authoritarian and military leaders in Spain against republicans and leftists between 1936 and 1939; Germany and Italy supported the royalists and the Soviet Union supported the republicans; the conflict eventually led to victory for the royalist forces

37

corporatism

a political ideology that emphasized the organic nature of society and made the state a mediator, adjusting the interests of different social groups; it appealed to conservative groups in European and Latin American societies, as well as to the military

38

Lázaro Cárdenas

the president of Mexico from 1934 to 1940, he was responsible for the redistribution of land, primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; he also began a program of primary and rural education

39

Getúlio Vargas

the elected president of Brazil in 1929 who launched a centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments, he held off coups by communists in 1935 and in 1937; later, he imposed a new constitution based on Mussolini’s Italy, and he began leaning to communism after 1949; he committed suicide in 1954

40

Juan D. Perón

a military leader in Argentina who became a dominant political figure after a military coup in 1943; he used his position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor, and became president in 1946; he was forced into exile in 1955, but returned and won the presidency in 1973

41

five-year plan

Stalin’s plans to hasten industrialization of the U.S.S.R.; he constructed massive factories in metallurgy, mining, and electric power, and while this succeeded in leading to massive state-planned industrialization, it came at the cost of the availability of consumer products, which was greatly decreased

42

socialist realism

an attempt within the U.S.S.R. to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adoption of western European cultural forms; it began under Joseph Stalin, and was a fundamental method of Soviet fiction, art, and literary criticism

43

Politburo

the executive committee of the Soviet Communist party, it consisted of 20 members