Chpt. 30, WW2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 30, WW2 Deck (28):
1

National Socialist (Nazi) Party

also known as the Nazi Party, this party was led by Adolf Hitler in Germany and picked up political support during the economic chaos of the Great Depression; it advocated an authoritarian state under a single leader, and an aggressive foreign policy to reverse the humiliation of the Versailles treaty; it took power in Germany in 1933

2

Winston Churchill

the British prime minister during WW2, he was responsible for the British resistance to German air assaults

3

blitzkrieg

the German term for lightning warfare, it involved the rapid movement of airplanes, tanks, and mechanized troop carriers, and resulted in early German victories over Belgium, Holland, and France in WW2

4

Vichy

the French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following the defeat of French armies by the Germans

5

Battle of Britain

the 1940 Nazi air offensive, including the saturation bombing of London and other British cities; it was countered by innovative British air tactics and the radar tracking of German assault aircraft

6

Battle of the Bulge

Hitler’s last-ditch effort to repel the invading Allied armies in the winter of 1944-1945

7

Holocaust

the term for Hitler’s genocide of European Jews during WW2, it resulted in the deaths of 6 million Jews

8

Pearl Harbor

an American naval base in Hawaii that was attacked by the Japanese in December 1941, crippling the American fleet in the Pacific and causing the entry of the US into WW2

9

Battle of the Coral Sea

a Pacific WW2 battle in which US and Japanese forces fought to a standoff

10

Midway Island

the location of a Pacific WW2 naval battle that constituted a decisive US victory over a powerful Japanese carrier force, and was a major turning point for US victory in the Pacific

11

United Nations

an international organization that was formed in the aftermath of WW2 and included all of the victorious Allies; its primary mission was to provide a forum for negotiating disputes

12

Tehran Conference

a meeting among the leaders of the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1943 in which the leaders agreed to the opening of a new front in France

13

Yalta Conference

a meeting among leaders of the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1945 that agreed to Soviet entry into the Pacific war in return for possessions in Manchuria, and which also confirmed the organization of the UN; at this conference, the division of political organization in eastern European states to be reestablished after the war was disputed

14

Potsdam Conference

a meeting among the leaders of the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union just before the end of WW2 in 1945; the Allies agreed upon Soviet domination in eastern Europe, and for Germany and Austria to be divided among the victorious Allies

15

total war

the warfare of the 20th century, in which vast resources and emotional commitment of belligerent nations were marshaled to support military effort; this resulted from the impact of industrialization on the military effort, reflecting enhanced technological innovation and organizational capacity

16

Atlantic Charter of 1941

a WW2 alliance agreement between the US and Britain that included a clause recognizing the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live, and which harbored a sympathy for decolonization

17

Quit India Movement

a mass civil disobedience campaign to end British control over India that began in the summer of 1942

18

Muslim League

founded in 1906 to better support the demands of the Muslims for separate electorates and legislative seats in Hindu-dominated India, this group represented the division within the Indian nationalist movement

19

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

a Muslim nationalist leader in India who was originally a member of the National Congress party but eventually became a leader of the Muslim League; he traded Muslim support for the British during WW2 for promises of a separate Muslim state after the war, and was the first president of Pakistan

20

Convention Peoples party (CPP)

a political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition to British control of colonial legislatures in the Gold Coast of Africa

21

Jomo Kenyatta

the leader of the nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya who organized the Kenya Africa Union (KAU); he failed to win concessions because of the resistance of white settlers, and came to power only after the suppression of the Land Freedom Army, or Mau Mau

22

Kenya African Union (KAU)

the leading nationalist party in Kenya, it adopted a nonviolent approach to ending British control in the 1950s

23

Land Freedom Army

a radical organization for independence in Kenya that was frustrated by the failure of nonviolent means and initiated a campaign of terror in 1952; it was referred to by the British as Mau Mau

24

National Liberation Front (FLN)

a radical nationalist movement in Algeria that launched a sustained guerilla war against France in the 1950s, and the success of its attacks led to the independence of Algeria in 1958

25

Secret Army Organization (OAS)

an organization of French settlers in Algeria who led a guerrilla war following Algeria’s independence in the 1960s; assaults were directed against Arabs, Berbers, and French who advocated independence

26

Afrikaner National Party

a party that emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948, it advocated complete independence from Britain and favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid

27

apartheid

a policy of strict racial segregation imposed in South Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically

28

Haganah

a Zionist military force engaged in violent resistance to the British presence in Palestine in the 1940s