Chpt. 24, Industrialization and Imperialism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 24, Industrialization and Imperialism Deck (20)
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1
Q

Mataram

A

a kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in the 17th century; the Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for the rights of trade at Batavia; the weakness of this kingdom after the 1670s allowed the Dutch to exert control over all of Java

2
Q

sepoys

A

troops that served the British East India Company and who were recruited from various warlike peoples of India

3
Q

British Raj

A

the British political establishment in India, it developed as a result of the rivalry between France and Britain in India

4
Q

Battle of Plassey

A

a battle in 1757 between troops of the British East India Company and an Indian army under Sirāj ud-daula, ruler of Bengal; British victory here resulted in British control over northern India

5
Q

Robert Clive

A

the architect of the British victory at Plassey in 1757, he established the foundations of the British Raj in northern India (18th century)

6
Q

presidencies

A

three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; the capitals were located at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay

7
Q

princely states

A

the domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; in these states, agents of the East India Company were stationed at the rulers’ courts to ensure compliance; these states made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire

8
Q

nabobs

A

the name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation; they received much criticism for their practices from contemporary England

9
Q

Lord Charles Cornwallis

A

a reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790s; he reduced the power of local British administrations and checked widespread corruption among colonial governments; he was the same man who surrendered to Washington at the end of the Revolutionary War

10
Q

Ram Mohun Roy

A

a Western-educed Indian leader who cooperated with the British to outlaw sati early in the 19th century

11
Q

Isandhlwana

A

the location of a battle fought in 1879 between the British and Zulu armies in south Africa; it resulted in the defeat of the British, and was one of the few victories of African forces over western Europeans; despite this, the number of European deaths still only equaled 1/3 of the number of Zulu deaths

12
Q

tropical dependencies

A

the greater portion of the European empires consisting of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific where small numbers of Europeans ruled large populations of non-Western peoples

13
Q

settlement colonies

A

areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants

14
Q

White Dominions

A

colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population, and small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; these areas were typical of British holdings in North America and Australia, with growing independence in the 19th century

15
Q

white racial supremacy

A

a belief in the inherent mental, moral, and cultural superiority of whites; this attitude peaked in acceptance in the decades before World War 1, and was supported by the social science doctrine of social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer

16
Q

Natal

A

a British colony in south Africa that developed after a Boer trek north from Cape Colony; its major commercial outpost was at Durban

17
Q

Boer republics

A

composed of the Transvaal and Orange Free State in south Africa, they were established to assert independence of the Boers from British colonial governments in Cape Colony in the 1850s; the discovery of diamonds and precious metals caused a British migration into the Boer areas in the 1860s

18
Q

Cecil Rhodes

A

a British entrepreneur in south Africa around 1900, he manipulated the political situation in south Africa to gain entry to the resources of the Boer republics and he encouraged Boer warring as a means of destroying Boer independence

19
Q

Anglo-Boer War

A

fought between 1899 and 1902 over continued independence of the Boer republics, it resulted in a British victory, but began the process of decolonization for whites in South Africa

20
Q

Captain James Cook

A

an English captain who made voyages to Hawaii from 1777 to 1779, resulting in the opening of the islands to the West; he convinced Kamehameha to established a united kingdom in the islands