Chpt. 6, The Rise of Islam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 6, The Rise of Islam Deck (38)
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1
Q

Bedouin

A

nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula who had a culture based on camel and goat nomadism; they were early converts to Islam

2
Q

shaykhs

A

leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society, they were usually men with large herds, usually had several wives, and many children

3
Q

Mecca

A

a city located in the mountainous region along the Red Sea in the Arabian peninsula; it was founded by the Umayyad tribe of Quraysh; it was the site of the Ka’ba, and the original home of Muhammad, as well as the location of the chief religious pilgrimage point in Islam

4
Q

Umayyad

A

the clan of Quraysh that dominated the politics and commercial economy of Mecca; they were the clan established as the ruling dynasty of Islam from 661 to 750

5
Q

Quraysh

A

a tribe of bedouins that controlled Mecca in the 7th century CE

6
Q

Ka’ba

A

the most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual trune among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as an important shrine in Islam

7
Q

Medina

A

also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became a refuge for Muhammad following his flight from Mecca (hijrah)

8
Q

Muhammad

A

prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father’s family; received revelations from Allah in 610 CE and thereafter; died in 632

9
Q

Khadijah

A

the first wife of the prophet Muhammad, who had worked for her as a trader

10
Q

Qur’an

A

recitations of revelations received by Muhammad; holy book of Islam

11
Q

Ali

A

the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; was a focus for Shi’a

12
Q

umma

A

the community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create a degree of political unity

13
Q

zakat

A

the tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims

14
Q

five pillars of faith

A

the obligatory religious duties of all Muslims:

  • confession of faith (“there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet”)
  • prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca
  • fasting during the month of Ramadan from dawn to sunset
  • zakat (a tithe for charity)
  • the hajj (a pilgrimage to Mecca performed at least once in a lifetime if means allow)
15
Q

Ramadan

A

Islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn to sunset

16
Q

hajj

A

a Muslim’s pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, to worship Allah at the Ka’ba

17
Q

caliph

A

the political and religious successor to Muhammad

18
Q

Abu Bakr

A

one of Muhammad’s earliest converts; succeeded Muhammad as the first caliph of the Islamic community

19
Q

Ridda Wars

A

wars that followed Muhammad’s death in 632; resulted in the defeat of rival prophets and of some larger clans; restored the unity of Islam

20
Q

jihad

A

the Islamic concept of a struggle of faith; often used to justify wars in defense of faith (or, especially today, in defense of terrorism)

21
Q

Copts

A

a Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasion of this area in preference to Byzantine rule (they were persecuted by the Byzantines)

22
Q

Nestorians

A

a Christian sect found in Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule because they were persecuted by the Byzantines; they were cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions

23
Q

Uthman

A

the third caliph and member of the Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; his death set off a civil war in Islam between the followers of Ali (part of the later Shi’a) and the Umayyad clan (part of the later Sunni)

24
Q

Battle of Siffin

A

fought in 657 between the forces of Ali and the Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to the fragmentation of Ali’s party; Ali lost support by showing mercy when he had victory in battle

25
Q

Mu’awiya

A

a leader of the Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following the civil war with Ali

26
Q

Sunni

A

a political and theological division within Islam; supported the Umayyads

27
Q

Shi’a; aka Shi’ites

A

a political and theological division with Islam; followers of Ali; believed only those who were actually related to Muhammad could rule

28
Q

Karbala

A

the site of the defeat and death of Husayn, the son of Ali; marked the beginning of Shi’a resistance to the Umayyad caliphate

29
Q

mawali

A

non-Arab converts to Islam

30
Q

jizya

A

a head tax paid by all non-believers in Islamic territories

31
Q

dhimmi

A

literally “people fo the book”; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and Hindus; eventually came to encompass all conquered people

32
Q

hadiths

A

traditions of the prophet; Islamic holy book that is important, but that is 2nd to the Qur’an

33
Q

Abbasid

A

the dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 CE

34
Q

Battle of the River Zab

A

the victory of the Abbasids over the Umayyads; resulted in the conquest of Syria and the capture and the Umayyad capital (Damascus)

35
Q

Baghdad

A

the capital of the Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near the ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon

36
Q

wazir

A

a chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from the Persian provinces of the empire

37
Q

dhows

A

Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design

38
Q

ayan

A

the wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule