Chpt. 4, Classical Mediterranean and Middle East Flashcards Preview

AP World Learning > Chpt. 4, Classical Mediterranean and Middle East > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt. 4, Classical Mediterranean and Middle East Deck (31)
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1
Q

Cyrus the Great

A

a great Middle Eastern conqueror who emerged in 550 BCE and established the massive Persian (Achaemenid) Empire

2
Q

Zoroastrianism

A

a religion that arose in Persia, founded by Zoroaster (630 – 550 BCE), that emphasized the battle between good and evil, and the importance of personal moral choice in choosing one or the other; their priests are known as Magi

3
Q

Olympic games

A

one of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and religious celebrations

4
Q

Pericles

A

Athenian political leader during the 5th century BCE; died during early stages of Peloponnesian War

5
Q

Peloponnesian Wars

A

wars from 431 to 404 BCE between Sparta and Athens for dominance in Greece; resulted in Spartan victory but failure to achieve unity in Greece

6
Q

Phillip 2

A

ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 BCE; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece, which was subjected to Macedonian authority

7
Q

Hellenic

A

the adjective used to describe classical Greece, especially its culture

8
Q

Hellenistic

A

the adjective used to describe the blending of the culture of Greece, Persia, and India, and Egypt that occurred when Alexander the Conqueror united these areas under his rule

9
Q

Alexandria, Egypt

A

site of ancient Mediterrenean’s greatest library; center of literary studies

10
Q

Roman Republic

A

founded with a constitution c. 510 and lasting until 47 BC, this featured an aristocratic Senate, a panel of magistrates, and several popular assemblies

11
Q

Punic Wars

A

from 264 – 146 BCE, fought between Rome and Carthage to establish dominance in the western Mediterranean; won by Rome after three separate conflicts

12
Q

Carthage

A

originally a Phoenician colony in northern Africa, it became a major port and commercial power in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic Wars with Rome for dominance of the western Mediterranean

13
Q

Hannibal

A

a great Carthaginian general during the Second Punic War; successfully invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome; finally was defeated at the Battle of Zama

14
Q

Julius Caesar

A

a Roman general responsible for the conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew the republic; assassinated in 44 BC by conservative senators

15
Q

Augustus Caesar

A

the name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; the first emperor of Rome

16
Q

Diocletian

A

a Roman emperor from 284 to 305 CE who restored the later empire by improving administration and tax collection

17
Q

Constantine

A

a Roman emperor from 312 to 337 CE; he established a second capital at Constantinople and attempted to use the religious force of Christianity to unify his empire spiritually

18
Q

polis

A

city-state form of government; typ-ical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 BC

19
Q

direct democracy

A

where people participate directly in assemblies that make laws and select leaders, rather than electing representatives

20
Q

Senate

A

the assembly of Roman aristocrats; advised on policy within the republic; one of the early elements of Roman constitution; they formed the legislative branch of Roman government

21
Q

consuls

A

two chief executives or magistrates of the Roman Republic; elected annually by aristocrat dominated assembly; they formed the executive branch of Roman government

22
Q

Cicero

A

(106-43 BCE) conservative Roman senator; Stoic philosopher; one of great orators of his day, killed in reaction to assassination of Julius Caesar

23
Q

Aristotle

A

a Greek philosopher; the teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in the natural world

24
Q

Stoicism

A

a Hellenistic group of philosophers who emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery; it was a philosophy originally attributed to a freed slave named Zeno

25
Q

Socrates

A

an Athenian philosopher of the later 5th century BC; tutor of Plato, he urged rational reflection of moral decisions and was condemned to death for corrupting the minds of the Athenian young

26
Q

Sophocles

A

Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex

27
Q

Iliad

A

a Greek epic poem attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greek myths; it told the tale of the Trojan War

28
Q

Odyssey

A

a Greek epic poem attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greek myths

29
Q

Doric

A

along with Ionic and Corinthian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the least ornate of the three styles

30
Q

Ionic

A

along with Doric and Corinthian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; more ornate than Doric but less than Corinthian

31
Q

Corinthian

A

along with Doric and Ionic, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the most ornate of the three styles