Chpt. 21, The Muslim Empires Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 21, The Muslim Empires Deck (25)
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1
Q

Safavid Dynasty

A

originally a Turkic nomadic group; it’s ruling family originated in Sufi mystic group; they espoused Shi’ism; conquered territory and established a kingdom in a region equivalent to modern Iran; they lasted until 1722

2
Q

Mughal Empire

A

established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; they became weak after the rule of Aurangzeb in the first decades of the 18th century

3
Q

Ottomans

A

Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during the 1350s; conquered a large part of the Balkans; unified under Mehmed 1; captured Constantinople in 1453; established an empire from the Balkans that included most of the Arab world

4
Q

Mehmed 2; aka Mehmet 2

A

an Ottoman sultan called the “Conqueror”; responsible for the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, destroying what remained of the Byzantine Empire; he declared the Hagia Sophia a mosque, and changed “Constantinople” to “Istanbul”

5
Q

Janissaries

A

Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of the Balkans, legally slaves, translated military service into political influence, particularly after the 15th century

6
Q

vizier

A

the Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after the 15th century often more powerful than the sultan

7
Q

Sail al-Din

A

an early 14th-century Sufi mystic; began a campaign to purify Islam; the first member of the Safavid dynasty

8
Q

Red Heads

A

the name given to the Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear

9
Q

Ismâ’il

A

a 14-year-old, he was the foremost Safavid military commander; he conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501; he was first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor

10
Q

Battle of Chaldiran

A

the battle between the Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Safavids were severely defeated by the Ottomans, checking the western advance of the Safavid Empire

11
Q

(Shah) Abbas the Great

A

a Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to its greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within the Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology

12
Q

imams

A

in general in Islam, they are religious leaders, similar to Christianity’s priests; according to Shi’ism, they had to be able to trace their descent from Ali; in the Safavid Empire, they were to some extent rulers

13
Q

mullahs

A

local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of a Safavid religious campaign to convert all of the population to Shi’ism

14
Q

Isfahan

A

the Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; a planned city laid out according to the Sha’s design, and a good example of Safavid architecture

15
Q

Nadir Khan Afshar

A

a soldier-adventurer following the fall of the Safavid dynasty in 1722; he proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established a short-lived dynasty in a reduced kingdom

16
Q

Babur

A

the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led an invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530

17
Q

Humayan

A

the son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter

18
Q

Akbar

A

the son and successor of Humayan; oversaw the building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued a policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India

19
Q

Din-i-Ilahi

A

a religion invented by Akbar in Mughal India; it blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; it was Akbar’s plan to reconcile Hindus and Muslims in India, but it failed to be adopted by either side

20
Q

purdah

A

seclusion in the home imposed on women in India

21
Q

Aurangzeb

A

a Mughal emperor who succeeded Shah Jahan, and was known for his religious zealotry; he tried to conquer too much land, and ended up overextending the Mughal Empire

22
Q

Taj Mahal

A

the most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India; originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal

23
Q

Nur Jahan

A

the wife of Jahangir; amassed power in the court and created a faction of male relatives who dominated the Mughal empire during the later years of Jahangir’s reign

24
Q

Mumtaz Mahal

A

the wife of Shah Jahan; took an active political role in the Mughal court; entombed in Taj Mahal

25
Q

sati

A

ritual in India of immolating surviving widows with the bodies of their deceased husbands