Chpt. 17, The Transformation of the West Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 17, The Transformation of the West Deck (38)
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1
Q

Niccolo Machiavelli

A

author of The Prince (16th century), he emphasized the realistic discussion of how to seize and maintain power, justified the right of the ruler to use any means to govern his state

2
Q

humanism

A

a focus on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor, it was a method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages

3
Q

Northern Renaissance

A

a cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe, it began later than the Italian Renaissance c. 1450, and was centered in France, the Low Countries, and Germany, and featured greater emphasis on religion then the Italian Renaissance

4
Q

Francis 1

A

a King of France in the 16th century, he was regarded as a Renaissance monarch, and was a patron of the arts; he imposed new controls on the Catholic church, and was an ally of the Ottoman sultan against the Holy Roman Empire

5
Q

Johannes Gutenberg

A

he introduced movable type to western Europe in the 15th century, and was credited with greatly expanding the availability of printed books and pamphlets

6
Q

European-style family

A

this originated in the 15th century among the peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married

7
Q

Martin Luther

A

a German monk who initiated the Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to the door of Wittenberg church; he emphasized the primacy of faith over works, and accepted state control over the church

8
Q

Protestantism; Protestant Reformation

A

a general wave of religious dissent against the Catholic Church the was generally held to have begun with Martin Luther’s attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; it included many varieties of religious belief

9
Q

Anglican Church; aka Church of England

A

a form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534, it was established by Henry the 8th with himself as the head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his wife; it became increasingly Protestant following Henry’s death

10
Q

Jean Calvin

A

a French Protestant (16th century) who stressed the doctrine of established predestination; he established the center of his group at the Swiss canton of Geneva, and he encouraged ideas of wider access to government, and a wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America

11
Q

Catholic Reformation

A

a restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to the Protestant Reformation (16th century); it established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs; aka the “Counter-Reformation”

12
Q

Jesuits; aka the Society of Jesus

A

a new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation, it was active in politics, education, and missionary work, and it sponsored missions to South America, North America, and Asia

13
Q

Edict of Nantes

A

a grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598, it was granted only after a lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions

14
Q

Thirty Years War

A

a war within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; it ended in 1648 after great destruction with the Treaty of Westphalia

15
Q

Treaty of Westphalia

A

this ended the Thirty Years War in 1648, and granted the right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion, either Protestant or Catholic

16
Q

English Civil War

A

lasting from 1642 to 1649, it was an uprising against the religious persecution and strict rule of Charles 1 of England

17
Q

proletariat

A

a class of working people without access to producing property; typically consisted of manufacturing workers, paid laborers in an agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, they were the product of the economic changes of the 16th and 17th centuries

18
Q

witchcraft persecution

A

reflecting the resentment against the poor and uncertainties about religious truth, this persecution resulted in the death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650, and was particularly common in Protestant areas

19
Q

Scientific Revolution

A

culminating in the 17th century, this was a period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations, and resulted in changes in traditional beliefs of the Middle Ages

20
Q

Copernicus

A

a Polish monk and astronomer (16th century) who disproved the Hellenistic (and still popular) belief that the earth was at the center of the universe; there is controversy as to whether he discovered this himself or copied the works of previous Arab scientists

21
Q

Johannes Kepler

A

an astronomer and mathematician who was a prominent figure in the scientific revolution; he used the work of Copernicus and his own observations to prove that the orbits of the planets around the sun were ellipses rather than circles

22
Q

Galileo

A

he published Copernicus’ finding (17th century), and added his own discoveries concerning the laws of gravity and planetary motion; he was condemned by the Catholic church for his work

23
Q

William Harvey

A

an English physician (17th century) who demonstrated the circulatory movement of blood in animals, and the function of the heart as a pump

24
Q

Francis Bacon

A

an English philosopher, author, statesman, and scientist, he was an influential member of the scientific revolution, and is best known for his work on the scientific method

25
Q

René Descartes

A

he established the importance of the skeptical review of all received wisdom (17th century) and argued that human reason could develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature

26
Q

Isaac Newton

A

an English scientist who in 1687 set forth the basic principles of all motion, defined the forces of gravity, and helped establish the basic scientific method

27
Q

Deism

A

the concept of God current during the Scientific Revolution; the role of divinity was to set natural laws in motion, not to regulate once processes had begun

28
Q

John Locke

A

an English philosopher who argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason and that the power of government came from the people, not from divine right of kings; he offered the possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants

29
Q

absolute monarchy

A

the concept of government developed during the rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; it featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, and imposed state economic policies

30
Q

Louis the 14th

A

a French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy

31
Q

Glorious Revolution

A

the English overthrow of James the 2nd in 1688, it resulted in the affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king

32
Q

parliamentary monarchy

A

this originated in England and Holland in the 17th century, and was a system in which kings were partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments

33
Q

Frederick the Great

A

a Prussian king of the 18th century who attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms in Germany; he built on the military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors, and introduced freedom of religion; he also introduced state control of the economy

34
Q

Enlightenment

A

an intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century, it featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to the study of human society, and the belief that rational laws could describe human behavior

35
Q

Adam Smith

A

established liberal economics (Wealth of Nation, 1776), and argued that government should avoid regulation of the economy in favor of the operation of market forces

36
Q

Denis Diderot

A

a French Enlightenment figure best known for his work on the first encyclopedia

37
Q

Mary Wollstonecraft

A

an Enlightenment feminist thinker in England who argued that new political rights should extend to women, and fought for women’s rights

38
Q

mass consumerism

A

the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods and services below elite levels of society, along with a growing economic capacity to afford some of these goods; while hints of this can be found in several premodern societies, it developed most clearly beginning in Western Europe, from the 18th century onward; constituted the development of a middle class