Chpt. 27, Russian and Japanese Industrialization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 27, Russian and Japanese Industrialization Deck (22)
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1
Q

Holy Alliance

A

an alliance among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order, it was formed at the Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe

2
Q

Decembrist uprising

A

a political revolt in Russia in 1825 that was led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms, but which was put down by Tsar Nicholas 1

3
Q

Crimean War

A

fought between 1854 and 1856, this war began as a Russian attempt to attack the Ottoman Empire; in this war Russia was opposed by France and Britain together, the war resulted in Russian defeat in the face of Western industrial technology, and it led to Russian reforms under Tsar Alexander 2

4
Q

emancipation of the serfs

A

Tsar Alexander 2 ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861, although serfs obtained no political rights, and were required to stay in villages until they could repay the aristocracy for the land

5
Q

zemstvoes

A

local political councils created as part of the reforms of Tsar Alexander 2 that gave some Russians, particularly middle-class professionals, experience in government; the councils were strictly local, and had no impact on national policy

6
Q

trans-Siberian railroad

A

constructed in the 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific, this railroad was completed by the end of the 1880s, and brought Russia into a more active Asian role

7
Q

Sergei Witte

A

the Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903, he was an economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, he improved the banking system, and he encouraged Western investors to build factories in Russia

8
Q

intelligentsia

A

a Russian term referencing articulate intellectuals as a class, it was a 19th century group that was bent on radical change in Russian political and social systems; they often wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West

9
Q

anarchists

A

political groups seeking the abolition of all formal government; they formed in many parts of Europe and the Americas in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and were particularly prevalent in Russia, where they opposed the tsarist autocracy and became a terrorist movement responsible for the assassination of Alexander 2 in 1881

10
Q

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov

A

better known as Lenin, he was the most active Russian Marxist leader who insisted on the importance of disciplined revolutionary cells, and was the leader of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917

11
Q

Bolsheviks

A

literally, “the majority party”; they were the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement, were led by V. I. Lenin and were dedicated to his concept of a socialist revolution; they were actually a minority in the Russian Marxist political scheme until its triumph in the 1917 revolution

12
Q

Russo-Japanese War

A

a war between Japan and Russia over territory in Manchuria in which Japan defeated the Russians, largely because of its naval power; Japan annexed Korea in 1910 as a result of its military dominance

13
Q

duma

A

a national parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; the duma was progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas 2, and failed to forestall further revolution

14
Q

Stolypin reforms

A

reforms introduced by the Russian interior minister Pyotr Stolypin that were intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; it included a reduction in redemption payments and an attempt to create a market-oriented peasantry

15
Q

kulaks

A

agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin and later NEP reforms to increase agricultural production and buy additional land

16
Q

terakoya

A

commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan to teach reading, writing, and the rudiments of Confucianism; they resulted in a high literacy rate, approaching 40 percent of all Japanese males

17
Q

Dutch Studies

A

a group of Japanese scholars interested in the implication of Western science and technology beginning in the 17th century; they urged freer exchange with the West and based their studies on the few Dutch texts available in Japan

18
Q

Matthew Perry

A

an American commodore who visited Edo Bay with an American fleet in 1853 and insisted on opening ports to American trade on threat of naval bombardment; he won rights for American trade with Japan in 1854, in which the Japanese had little choice but to accept due to the superior American navy

19
Q

Diet

A

the Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889, it was part of the Meiji reforms, and could pass laws and approve budgets, but was only able to advise the government, not control it

20
Q

zaibatsu

A

large family controlled monopolies created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the process of industrialization

21
Q

Sino-Japanese War

A

a war fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894 and 1895 that resulted in Japanese victory; nevertheless, Japanese imperial aims were frustrated due to Western insistence that Japan withdraw from the Liaodong peninsula

22
Q

yellow peril

A

the Western term for the perceived threat of Japanese imperialism around 1900, it was met by increased Western imperialism in the region