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Flashcards in Cooking Terms Deck (278):
1

al dente

pasta cooked just until enough resistance is left to be felt "by the tooth" -- never overcooked and too soft

2

aromatics

herbs and spices that are added to enhance the flavor and fragrance of food, e.g., bay leaf, thyme, and peppercorns

3

au jus

a dish (such as beef) served in the juices that result from its cooking

4

to bake

to cook food inside a temperature-controlled oven for a set period of time

5

to baste

to moisten food during cooking with pan drippings or other fat (by spooning or brushing) to prevent the food from drying out and to facilitate browning

6

batter

a mixture of flour and liquid with the addition of eggs and sometimes fat to prepare cakes, muffins, and pancakes

Note: dough holds its shape whereas this does not

7

to beat

to effortfully stir and mix to smooth and/or add air into a mixture

8

binder

an ingredient (such as mustard or egg yolk) that assists in the "binding" of an emulsified sauce (like herb vinaigrette)

9

to blacken

a Cajun style of pan searing where meat or fish is seasoned with spices then cooked in an intensely heated pan until charred and very crispy on the outside

10

to blanch

to quickly cook vegetables, fruits, nuts, or grains in rapidly boiling water for a short period of time, then place them in ice water to stop the cooking process

11

to blend

to mix two or more ingredients together until smooth and uniform

12

to blind bake

to bake a pie crust without any filling, in order to have desired crust texture and color that would have been impossible upon cooking with a filling

13

to boil

to heat up and maintain a liquid at the temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit

14

 to braise

to slowly cook tough cuts of meat or hearty fish and vegetables with a small amount of liquid at a low, even temperature

15

to bread

to coat foods that are going to be fried or baked with a bread crumb mixture to create a crust

16

brine

a solution of water and salt along with (usually) sugar, aromatics, and spices used to preserve, tenderize, and flavor foods

17

to broil

to cook food directly under a very high heat source such as a gas flame

18

to brown

to briefly apply high heat to the exterior of meat to improve flavor, texture, and color -- similar to searing

19

to brush

to use a pastry brush to coat food with liquid, glaze, or fat

20

to butterfly

to slice open food (like a chicken breast) horizontally, almost all the way through, so that it can be opened; this creates more surface area for faster cooking

21

pasta cooked just until enough resistance is left to be felt "by the tooth" -- never overcooked and too soft

al dente

22

herbs and spices that are added to enhance the flavor and fragrance of food, e.g., bay leaf, thyme, and peppercorns

aromatics

23

a dish (such as beef) served in the juices that result from its cooking

au jus

24

to cook food inside a temperature-controlled oven for a set period of time

to bake

25

to moisten food during cooking with pan drippings or other fat (by spooning or brushing) to prevent the food from drying out and to facilitate browning

to baste

26

a mixture of flour and liquid with the addition of eggs and sometimes fat to prepare cakes, muffins, and pancakes

Note: dough holds its shape whereas this does not

batter

27

to effortfully stir and mix to smooth and/or add air into a mixture

to beat

28

an ingredient (such as mustard or egg yolk) that assists in the "binding" of an emulsified sauce (like herb vinaigrette)

binder

29

a Cajun style of pan searing where meat or fish is seasoned with spices then cooked in an intensely heated pan until charred and very crispy on the outside

to blacken

30

to quickly cook vegetables, fruits, nuts, or grains in rapidly boiling water for a short period of time, then place them in ice water to stop the cooking process

to blanch

31

to mix two or more ingredients together until smooth and uniform

to blend

32

to bake a pie crust without any filling, in order to have desired crust texture and color that would have been impossible upon cooking with a filling

to blind bake

33

to heat up and maintain a liquid at the temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit

to boil

34

to slowly cook tough cuts of meat or hearty fish and vegetables with a small amount of liquid at a low, even temperature

 to braise

35

to coat foods that are going to be fried or baked with a bread crumb mixture to create a crust

to bread

36

a solution of water and salt along with (usually) sugar, aromatics, and spices used to preserve, tenderize, and flavor foods

brine

37

to cook food directly under a very high heat source such as a gas flame

to broil

38

to briefly apply high heat to the exterior of meat to improve flavor, texture, and color -- similar to searing

to brown

39

to use a pastry brush to coat food with liquid, glaze, or fat

to brush

40

to slice open food (like a chicken breast) horizontally, almost all the way through, so that it can be opened; this creates more surface area for faster cooking

to butterfly

41

candied

coated with a liquid and sugar solution, sometimes containing egg white, then air dried or slowly baked for a sweet and crunchy exterior

42

to caramelize

to brown meats or vegetables over high heat, releasing their natural sugars and resulting in darkened, more flavorful products

43

charcuterie

cooked, cold meat products like sausages, pates, and terrines that can be cured, boiled, grilled, or smoked ("cold-cuts")

44

chiffonade

herbs or leafy greens rolled together then sliced into thin ribbons or strips with a very sharp knife (which is necessary to avoid bruising the greens)

45

to chill

to refrigerate or shock with ice until fully cooled

46

to chop

to forcefully cut food into rough, irregular pieces with a knife

Note: not to be done when preparing a visual garnish

47

to clarify

to remove impurities (by skimming or straining) that have risen to the surface of a broth or other liquid

48

to coat

to evenly cover food with flour, bread crumbs, batter, fat, or sauce before cooking or serving

49

to coddle

to gently cook eggs or custard in individual containers placed in a water bath for slow, even cooking

50

to combine

a broad term used when incorporating two or more ingredients together by mixing, whipping, beating, stirring, blending, etc.

51

to confit

to slowly cook meat in its own fat for an extended period of time

  • results in an extremely tender piece of meat
  • popular in French cuisine

52

to cook

to prepare food with the use of heat

53

to core

to remove the center part of a fruit or vegetable

54

to cream

to whisk, beat, or fold two or more ingredients (most often butter and sugar) into a smooth consistency

Note: can also imply adding heavy cream to a sauce in order to thicken and add richness 

55

to crimp

to pinch or press dough edges (a piecrust) to create a decorative finish, and/or to seal in the filling of a pie during the baking process

56

to crisp

to bring “snap” to an ingredient by means of ice water, dry oven heat, or deep fat frying

57

to cure

to preserve and enhance the flavor of food by covering it with a combination of salt and/or sugar and other spices for an extended time

Note: items are then most commonly air dried or smoked to draw out their moisture

58

dash

a very small amount of an ingredient, almost always referred to when a dish could use “just a little more” in order to satisfy personal taste or preference

59

to deep-fry

to cook food by completely submerging it in very hot oil or fat

60

to deglaze

to add a broth or wine to reduced juices or solids, which can then be scraped off the pan and integrated into a complimentary sauce, stock, or dish

61

coated with a liquid and sugar solution, sometimes containing egg white, then air dried or slowly baked for a sweet and crunchy exterior

candied

62

to brown meats or vegetables over high heat, releasing their natural sugars and resulting in darkened, more flavorful products

to caramelize

63

cooked, cold meat products like sausages, pates, and terrines that can be cured, boiled, grilled, or smoked ("cold-cuts")

charcuterie

64

herbs or leafy greens rolled together then sliced into thin ribbons or strips with a very sharp knife (which is necessary to avoid bruising the greens)

chiffonade

65

to refrigerate or shock with ice until fully cooled

to chill

66

to forcefully cut food into rough, irregular pieces with a knife

Note: not to be done when preparing a visual garnish

to chop

67

to remove impurities (by skimming or straining) that have risen to the surface of a broth or other liquid

to clarify

68

to evenly cover food with flour, bread crumbs, batter, fat, or sauce before cooking or serving

to coat

69

to gently cook eggs or custard in individual containers placed in a water bath for slow, even cooking

to coddle

70

a broad term used when incorporating two or more ingredients together by mixing, whipping, beating, stirring, blending, etc.

to combine

71

to slowly cook meat in its own fat for an extended period of time

  • results in an extremely tender piece of meat
  • popular in French cuisine

to confit

72

to prepare food with the use of heat

to cook

73

to remove the center part of a fruit or vegetable

to core

74

to whisk, beat, or fold two or more ingredients (most often butter and sugar) into a smooth consistency

Note: can also imply adding heavy cream to a sauce in order to thicken and add richness 

to cream

75

to pinch or press dough edges (a piecrust) to create a decorative finish, and/or to seal in the filling of a pie during the baking process

to crimp

76

to bring “snap” to an ingredient by means of ice water, dry oven heat, or deep fat frying

to crisp

77

to preserve and enhance the flavor of food by covering it with a combination of salt and/or sugar and other spices for an extended time

Note: items are then most commonly air dried or smoked to draw out their moisture

to cure

78

a very small amount of an ingredient, almost always referred to when a dish could use “just a little more” in order to satisfy personal taste or preference

dash

79

to cook food by completely submerging it in very hot oil or fat

to deep-fry

80

to add a broth or wine to reduced juices or solids, which can then be scraped off the pan and integrated into a complimentary sauce, stock, or dish

to deglaze

81

to devein

most commonly to remove the large, dark vein that runs lengthwise in shrimp

Note: can also apply to any item that has a vein or thread-like element that is not considered edible and therefore removed, e.g., snow peas

82

to develop

to permit food to sit or “rest” so that the flavors may have time to merge and settle 

83

deviled

any recipe, dish, or ingredient that is made spicy or “hot” with spices (cayenne/chili powder/paprika) and/or mustards

84

to dice

to cut an ingredient into uniformly sized cubes

Note: the determined size of the cubes may vary depending on their intended application

85

direct heat

term used when referring to an item that is in the hottest part of the cooking element, where cooking is most intense

86

to dissolve

to mix a dry or granule ingredient with a liquid in order to create a single, transparent solution

87

to dot

to evenly place a small “dot” of an ingredient on the surface of another food, e.g., butter, nuts, frosting

88

to dredge

to completely and evenly cover an item by submerging and dragging it through a dry or wet mixture

89

to dress

to coat salad greens or vegetables with a dressing or marinade prior to consumption

90

drippings

the liquid or fat that remains in the pan/pot after food has been cooked; often used for sauces and dressings

91

to drizzle

to evenly pour a small amount of liquid over another ingredient or dish, e.g., olive oil over salad greens

92

to dust

to lightly sift a dry ingredient, such as powdered sugar, over another item or dish

93

egg wash

a wet mixture of eggs and water/milk, used when dredging an ingredient

Note: can also just be egg yolks, which are then brushed onto a bread or pastry before baking to enhance color and luster

94

to emulsify

to whisk or blend two (or more, usually liquid) ingredients into one unified product with the help of a "binder" ingredient, e.g., oil, vinegar, and mustard

95

essence

the extracted and concentrated flavor of an item, e.g., vanilla

96

to fillet

to remove the desired portion of meat from the skeletal system of a fish

97

to fold

to incorporate airy ingredients by scraping down the side of a bowl and back up the other side with a spatula

98

fritter

a food that is first covered with crumbs or a batter and then fried

99

garnish

an edible ingredient that is added last to a dish to make it more attractive to the eye, e.g., nuts or parsley

100

glaze

any liquid that can add shine and flavor to hot or cold foods

101

most commonly to remove the large, dark vein that runs lengthwise in shrimp

Note: can also apply to any item that has a vein or thread-like element that is not considered edible and therefore removed, e.g., snow peas

to devein

102

to permit food to sit or “rest” so that the flavors may have time to merge and settle 

to develop

103

any recipe, dish, or ingredient that is made spicy or “hot” with spices (cayenne/chili powder/paprika) and/or mustards

deviled

104

to cut an ingredient into uniformly sized cubes

Note: the determined size of the cubes may vary depending on their intended application

to dice

105

term used when referring to an item that is in the hottest part of the cooking element, where cooking is most intense

direct heat

106

to mix a dry or granule ingredient with a liquid in order to create a single, transparent solution

to dissolve

107

to evenly place a small “dot” of an ingredient on the surface of another food, e.g., butter, nuts, frosting

to dot

108

to completely and evenly cover an item by submerging and dragging it through a dry or wet mixture

to dredge

109

to coat salad greens or vegetables with a dressing or marinade prior to consumption

to dress

110

the liquid or fat that remains in the pan/pot after food has been cooked; often used for sauces and dressings

drippings

111

to evenly pour a small amount of liquid over another ingredient or dish, e.g., olive oil over salad greens

to drizzle

112

to lightly sift a dry ingredient, such as powdered sugar, over another item or dish

to dust

113

a wet mixture of eggs and water/milk, used when dredging an ingredient

Note: can also just be egg yolks, which are then brushed onto a bread or pastry before baking to enhance color and luster

egg wash

114

to whisk or blend two (or more, usually liquid) ingredients into one unified product with the help of a "binder" ingredient, e.g., oil, vinegar, and mustard

to emulsify

115

the extracted and concentrated flavor of an item, e.g., vanilla

essence

116

to remove the desired portion of meat from the skeletal system of a fish

to fillet

117

to incorporate airy ingredients by scraping down the side of a bowl and back up the other side with a spatula

to fold

118

a food that is first covered with crumbs or a batter and then fried

fritter

119

an edible ingredient that is added last to a dish to make it more attractive to the eye, e.g., nuts or parsley

garnish

120

any liquid that can add shine and flavor to hot or cold foods

glaze

121

to grate

to move a solid food (cheese) in a rubbing motion against the coarse, flat surface of a grater in order to break into smaller pieces

122

gratin

a food (potatoes) baked in a shallow dish with (usually) cream and butter and topped with cheese and breadcrumbs to give a golden brown crust

123

to move a solid food (cheese) in a rubbing motion against the coarse, flat surface of a grater in order to break into smaller pieces

to grate

124

a food (potatoes) baked in a shallow dish with (usually) cream and butter and topped with cheese and breadcrumbs to give a golden brown crust

gratin

125

to coat a pan with oil/butter so that food does not stick to it

to grease

126

to cook directly on hot metal grates above an open flame or coals

to grill

127

to break down various food items into smaller pieces with either a food processor or meat grinder

to grind

128

to cut food (like carrots or celery) into thin, uniform strips, usually 2 inches long

to julienne

129

to press or "work" dough with the heel of your hands to make it elastic and smooth

to knead

130

food that has been prepared in a manner that adheres to strict Jewish dietary laws

kosher

131

food (shellfish) cooked in a court bouillon, thickened with cream, and served with vegetable garnishes

à la nage

132

to rise when baked; occurs when certain ingredients like yeast or baking soda produce gas due to heat

to leaven

133

about the same temperature as the human body; neither warm nor cold

lukewarm

134

to place meats or vegetables in a flavorful liquid or spice mixture for a period of time to absorb flavor

to marinate

135

to press and mix a food with liquid or fat in order to obtain smoothness and richness

to mash

136

to heat a solid food until it becomes a liquid, e.g., butter or chocolate

to melt

137

to cut an item (usually an herb like chives) into very small and consistent pieces

to mince

138

to add a small amount of liquid to dry ingredients in order to slightly dampen them

to moisten

139

to cook food at a high heat in a pan with a small amount of oil/fat, one side at a time

to pan-fry

140

to partially cook (usually grains or pasta) in boiling water in order to be able to quickly finish cooking at a later time

to parboil

141

to cut away the exterior layer of a fruit or vegetable

to pare

142

to remove the outer skin of a fruit or vegetable

to peel

143

the small amount of seasoning that you can hold between your thumb and forefinger

pinch

144

to force a soft substance in a piping bag through a pastry tip to artistically decorate another food item, e.g., icing on a cake

to pipe

145

to gently cook food completely submerged in a simmering, aromatic liquid

to poach

146

a term used to describe a dish prepared with ingredients common to Provence, France

  • heavy emphasis on herbs (herbes de provence) such as lavender, tarragon, and rosemary
  • extensive use of olive oil, vegetables, and seafood
  • considered a lighter and healthier variety of French cuisine when compared to other regions of France that focus more on butter, cream, and veal stock

Provençal

147

to release the trapped gas in leavened bread by literally punching the dough with one's hands

Note: the dough is usually then left to rise again, creating a more flavorsome and textured bread

to punch-down

148

to blend or mix one or more food ingredients together until they are completely smooth

to purée

149

to decrease the amount of liquid in a mixture (by evaporation) to intensify flavor and/or thicken the mixture

to reduce

150

to gently sauté a fatty ingredient such as bacon or duck breast in a pan to "melt away" the fat

to render

151

to let cooked meat sit for 10 to 20 minutes after cooking at room temperature, allowing it to relax and retain its juices

to rest

152

to cook an uncovered item in the oven, allowing for browning and caramelization

to roast

153

a traditionally thin piece of meat rolled into a cylindrical shape with a filling

roulade

154

to rapidly turn and move food (vegetables or thin pieces of meat) around in a pan over high heat

to sauté

155

either to heat milk to just below boiling; or, to momentarily put fruits or vegetables in boiling water in order to skin them more easily

to scald

156

to make small, shallow cuts in meat before marinating or cooking

Note: this allows flavors to penetrate the meat and also helps keep the skin of fish lying flat in pans

to score

157

to brown the exterior of meat or fish by subjecting it to a very high heat surface for a short period of time

to sear

158

to add ingredients (such as salt, pepper, oregano, etc.) to a food to both complement and enhance its flavor 

to season

159

to cut or peel very thin slices of food, e.g., cheese or chocolate 

to shave

160

to move or shake dry ingredients (like flour) through a mesh sieve to remove lumps and add air to them

to sift

161

to maintain the temperature of a liquid that is at a very slow-moving boil

to simmer

162

a metal or wooden pin that can be used to securely arrange smaller pieces of food together for cooking (shish kebab); can also be used to eat without touching the food (chicken satay)

skewer

163

to remove the unwanted fat or foam from the top of a broth, sauce, or soup by means of a ladle or perforated spoon

to skim

164

to add water/liquid to beans, bread, or a dried grain in order to reconstitute prior to cooking

to soak

165

to cook foods (vegetables or fish) in a perforated pan above boiling water

Note: this is a preferred method of healthy cooking in that no fats are necessary for cooking

to steam

166

to submerge an ingredient, usually dried, in hot water or broth to extract flavor and/or color, e.g., tea

to steep

167

to cook liquid-covered ingredients over low heat for a long period of time

Note: this technique is mostly used when preparing hearty soups and is very similar to braising

to stew

168

to mix two or more ingredients with a fork, spoon, or whisk

to stir

169

to quickly and simultaneously cook a variety of small pieces of food in a wok (or a large pan) with very high heat, a little oil, and constant movement

to stir-fry

170

to gently cook (vegetables) at a low temperature in a pot or pan, releasing the water and flavor content of the ingredient(s)

Note: this is usually done during the beginning stages of a soup or sauce recipe

to sweat

171

to bring a cooler liquid to the same temperature of a hotter liquid by slowly dripping or pouring the hotter one into the other

Note: this is necessary when rapid incorporation would result in a separated or curdled emulsification

to temper

172

a Japanese style of cooking where ingredients are coated with a special batter and then quickly deep-fried

tempura

173

to reduce a mixture's thickness by adding more liquid (water, milk, cream, etc.)

to thin

174

to heat in order to dry or brown, e.g., bread

to toast

175

to mix gently, e.g., salad

to toss

176

to skillfully tie meat/fish with butchers string prior to cooking in order to retain shape, moisture, or ingredients that are stuffed into the meat

to truss

177

baked goods that can be made without baking powder, baking soda, or yeast 

unleavened

178

a technique used to maintain the temperature of an item being cooked or held, during which a vessel filled with that item is placed into another vessel filled with water

Note: water temperature is more controllable than air temperature

water bath

179

to rapidly whisk an ingredient and incorporate air into it, making it lighter in volume

to whip

180

to grate the outer skin of a citrus fruit

Note: the grated skin is commonly used to enhance the flavor of another ingredient

to zest

181

to create very small holes in a food that will allow air to escape, therefore preventing the formation of bubbles, e.g., puff pastry

to prick

182

a way of cooking that uses steam trapped under a locked lid to produce high temperatures and achieve extremely fast and/or even cooking time

pressure cooking

183

to fully heat an oven to the desired temperature before food is placed inside

to preheat

184

to flatten meats with a mallet to uniform thickness, so that multiple pieces cook evenly, and/or are more tender

to pound

185

to grease

to coat a pan with oil/butter so that food does not stick to it

186

to grill

to cook directly on hot metal grates above an open flame or coals

187

to grind

to break down various food items into smaller pieces with either a food processor or meat grinder

188

to julienne

to cut food (like carrots or celery) into thin, uniform strips, usually 2 inches long

189

to knead

to press or "work" dough with the heel of your hands to make it elastic and smooth

190

kosher

food that has been prepared in a manner that adheres to strict Jewish dietary laws

191

à la nage

food (shellfish) cooked in a court bouillon, thickened with cream, and served with vegetable garnishes

192

to leaven

to rise when baked; occurs when certain ingredients like yeast or baking soda produce gas due to heat

193

lukewarm

about the same temperature as the human body; neither warm nor cold

194

to marinate

to place meats or vegetables in a flavorful liquid or spice mixture for a period of time to absorb flavor

195

to mash

to press and mix a food with liquid or fat in order to obtain smoothness and richness

196

to melt

to heat a solid food until it becomes a liquid, e.g., butter or chocolate

197

to mince

to cut an item (usually an herb like chives) into very small and consistent pieces

198

to moisten

to add a small amount of liquid to dry ingredients in order to slightly dampen them

199

to pan-fry

to cook food at a high heat in a pan with a small amount of oil/fat, one side at a time

200

to parboil

to partially cook (usually grains or pasta) in boiling water in order to be able to quickly finish cooking at a later time

201

to pare

to cut away the exterior layer of a fruit or vegetable

202

to peel

to remove the outer skin of a fruit or vegetable

203

pinch

the small amount of seasoning that you can hold between your thumb and forefinger

204

to pipe

to force a soft substance in a piping bag through a pastry tip to artistically decorate another food item, e.g., icing on a cake

205

to poach

to gently cook food completely submerged in a simmering, aromatic liquid

206

to pound

to flatten meats with a mallet to uniform thickness, so that multiple pieces cook evenly, and/or are more tender

207

to preheat

to fully heat an oven to the desired temperature before food is placed inside

208

pressure cooking

a way of cooking that uses steam trapped under a locked lid to produce high temperatures and achieve extremely fast and/or even cooking time

209

to prick

to create very small holes in a food that will allow air to escape, therefore preventing the formation of bubbles, e.g., puff pastry

210

Provençal

a term used to describe a dish prepared with ingredients common to Provence, France

  • heavy emphasis on herbs (herbes de provence) such as lavender, tarragon, and rosemary
  • extensive use of olive oil, vegetables, and seafood
  • considered a lighter and healthier variety of French cuisine when compared to other regions of France that focus more on butter, cream, and veal stock

211

to punch-down

to release the trapped gas in leavened bread by literally punching the dough with one's hands

Note: the dough is usually then left to rise again, creating a more flavorsome and textured bread

212

to purée

to blend or mix one or more food ingredients together until they are completely smooth

213

to reduce

to decrease the amount of liquid in a mixture (by evaporation) to intensify flavor and/or thicken the mixture

214

to release the trapped gas in leavened bread by literally punching the dough with one's hands

Note: the dough is usually then left to rise again, creating a more flavorsome and textured bread

to punch-down

215

to blend or mix one or more food ingredients together until they are completely smooth

to purée

216

to decrease the amount of liquid in a mixture (by evaporation) to intensify flavor and/or thicken the mixture

to reduce

217

to render

to gently sauté a fatty ingredient such as bacon or duck breast in a pan to "melt away" the fat

218

to rest

to let cooked meat sit for 10 to 20 minutes after cooking at room temperature, allowing it to relax and retain its juices

219

to roast

to cook an uncovered item in the oven, allowing for browning and caramelization

220

roulade

a traditionally thin piece of meat rolled into a cylindrical shape with a filling

221

to sauté

to rapidly turn and move food (vegetables or thin pieces of meat) around in a pan over high heat

222

to scald

either to heat milk to just below boiling; or, to momentarily put fruits or vegetables in boiling water in order to skin them more easily

223

to score

to make small, shallow cuts in meat before marinating or cooking

Note: this allows flavors to penetrate the meat and also helps keep the skin of fish lying flat in pans

224

to sear

to brown the exterior of meat or fish by subjecting it to a very high heat surface for a short period of time

225

to season

to add ingredients (such as salt, pepper, oregano, etc.) to a food to both complement and enhance its flavor 

226

to shave

to cut or peel very thin slices of food, e.g., cheese or chocolate 

227

to sift

to move or shake dry ingredients (like flour) through a mesh sieve to remove lumps and add air to them

228

to simmer

to maintain the temperature of a liquid that is at a very slow-moving boil

229

skewer

a metal or wooden pin that can be used to securely arrange smaller pieces of food together for cooking (shish kebab); can also be used to eat without touching the food (chicken satay)

230

to skim

to remove the unwanted fat or foam from the top of a broth, sauce, or soup by means of a ladle or perforated spoon

231

to soak

to add water/liquid to beans, bread, or a dried grain in order to reconstitute prior to cooking

232

to steam

to cook foods (vegetables or fish) in a perforated pan above boiling water

Note: this is a preferred method of healthy cooking in that no fats are necessary for cooking

233

to steep

to submerge an ingredient, usually dried, in hot water or broth to extract flavor and/or color, e.g., tea

234

to stew

to cook liquid-covered ingredients over low heat for a long period of time

Note: this technique is mostly used when preparing hearty soups and is very similar to braising

235

to stir

to mix two or more ingredients with a fork, spoon, or whisk

236

to stir-fry

to quickly and simultaneously cook a variety of small pieces of food in a wok (or a large pan) with very high heat, a little oil, and constant movement

237

to sweat

to gently cook (vegetables) at a low temperature in a pot or pan, releasing the water and flavor content of the ingredient(s)

Note: this is usually done during the beginning stages of a soup or sauce recipe

238

to temper

to bring a cooler liquid to the same temperature of a hotter liquid by slowly dripping or pouring the hotter one into the other

Note: this is necessary when rapid incorporation would result in a separated or curdled emulsification

239

tempura

a Japanese style of cooking where ingredients are coated with a special batter and then quickly deep-fried

240

to thin

to reduce a mixture's thickness by adding more liquid (water, milk, cream, etc.)

241

to toast

to heat in order to dry or brown, e.g., bread

242

to toss

to mix gently, e.g., salad

243

to truss

to skillfully tie meat/fish with butchers string prior to cooking in order to retain shape, moisture, or ingredients that are stuffed into the meat

244

unleavened

baked goods that can be made without baking powder, baking soda, or yeast 

245

water bath

a technique used to maintain the temperature of an item being cooked or held, during which a vessel filled with that item is placed into another vessel filled with water

Note: water temperature is more controllable than air temperature

246

to whip

to rapidly whisk an ingredient and incorporate air into it, making it lighter in volume

247

to zest

to grate the outer skin of a citrus fruit

Note: the grated skin is commonly used to enhance the flavor of another ingredient

248

to gently sauté a fatty ingredient such as bacon or duck breast in a pan to "melt away" the fat

to render

249

to let cooked meat sit for 10 to 20 minutes after cooking at room temperature, allowing it to relax and retain its juices

to rest

250

to cook an uncovered item in the oven, allowing for browning and caramelization

to roast

251

a traditionally thin piece of meat rolled into a cylindrical shape with a filling

roulade

252

to rapidly turn and move food (vegetables or thin pieces of meat) around in a pan over high heat

to sauté

253

either to heat milk to just below boiling; or, to momentarily put fruits or vegetables in boiling water in order to skin them more easily

to scald

254

to make small, shallow cuts in meat before marinating or cooking

Note: this allows flavors to penetrate the meat and also helps keep the skin of fish lying flat in pans

to score

255

to brown the exterior of meat or fish by subjecting it to a very high heat surface for a short period of time

to sear

256

to add ingredients (such as salt, pepper, oregano, etc.) to a food to both complement and enhance its flavor 

to season

257

to cut or peel very thin slices of food, e.g., cheese or chocolate 

to shave

258

to move or shake dry ingredients (like flour) through a mesh sieve to remove lumps and add air to them

to sift

259

to maintain the temperature of a liquid that is at a very slow-moving boil

to simmer

260

a metal or wooden pin that can be used to securely arrange smaller pieces of food together for cooking (shish kebab); can also be used to eat without touching the food (chicken satay)

skewer

261

to remove the unwanted fat or foam from the top of a broth, sauce, or soup by means of a ladle or perforated spoon

to skim

262

to add water/liquid to beans, bread, or a dried grain in order to reconstitute prior to cooking

to soak

263

to cook foods (vegetables or fish) in a perforated pan above boiling water

Note: this is a preferred method of healthy cooking in that no fats are necessary for cooking

to steam

264

to submerge an ingredient, usually dried, in hot water or broth to extract flavor and/or color, e.g., tea

to steep

265

to cook liquid-covered ingredients over low heat for a long period of time

Note: this technique is mostly used when preparing hearty soups and is very similar to braising

to stew

266

to mix two or more ingredients with a fork, spoon, or whisk

to stir

267

to quickly and simultaneously cook a variety of small pieces of food in a wok (or a large pan) with very high heat, a little oil, and constant movement

to stir-fry

268

to gently cook (vegetables) at a low temperature in a pot or pan, releasing the water and flavor content of the ingredient(s)

Note: this is usually done during the beginning stages of a soup or sauce recipe

to sweat

269

to bring a cooler liquid to the same temperature of a hotter liquid by slowly dripping or pouring the hotter one into the other

Note: this is necessary when rapid incorporation would result in a separated or curdled emulsification

to temper

270

a Japanese style of cooking where ingredients are coated with a special batter and then quickly deep-fried

tempura

271

to reduce a mixture's thickness by adding more liquid (water, milk, cream, etc.)

to thin

272

to heat in order to dry or brown, e.g., bread

to toast

273

to mix gently, e.g., salad

to toss

274

to skillfully tie meat/fish with butchers string prior to cooking in order to retain shape, moisture, or ingredients that are stuffed into the meat

to truss

275

baked goods that can be made without baking powder, baking soda, or yeast 

unleavened

276

a technique used to maintain the temperature of an item being cooked or held, during which a vessel filled with that item is placed into another vessel filled with water

Note: water temperature is more controllable than air temperature

water bath

277

to rapidly whisk an ingredient and incorporate air into it, making it lighter in volume

to whip

278

to grate the outer skin of a citrus fruit

Note: the grated skin is commonly used to enhance the flavor of another ingredient

to zest

Decks in Uncategorized Class (207):