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Flashcards in Sauces and Condiments Deck (92):
1

What is a sauce?

a prepared liquid that has been composed to enhance and complement the natural flavors of a dish

  • often fresh, cooked with the dish
  • also adds visual appeal
  • can be hot or cold, thick or thin
  • can be made from a variety of ingredients like cream, butter, oil, stock, wine, etc.

2

What is a condiment?

a prepared liquid or dry seasoning mixture that is added to food to impart a particular flavor

  • can also complement the dish
  • added either during preparation or before/during consumption based on individual tastes
  • often preserved or fermented

3

adobo

strong marinade made from paprika, oregano, salt, garlic, oil, and vinegar

  • popular in Spanish and Filipino cuisines as a way to preserve and enhance meats
  • many variations have been created due to cultural and regional differences

4

aioli

a cold, emulsified condiment made from eggs, vinegar, and oil

Note: similar commercial versions are commonly called mayonnaise

5

alfredo sauce

a white, creamy sauce made from butter and large amounts of cheese that is to be tossed with warm pasta

6

barbecue sauce

a dark American sauce with many different variations depending on region

most commonly made with: tomato paste, brown sugar, vinegar, chili powder, and beef stock

7

basil pesto

a condiment made by mixing fresh basil with olive oil, raw garlic, toasted pine nuts, parmesan cheese, and lemon juice

  • a staple in Italian cuisine
  • often eaten with freshly baked bread or tossed in a cold pasta dish

8

béarnaise

a warm, creamy, emulsified sauce made from reduced white wine vinegar, shallots, tarragon, egg yolks, and clarified butter

a classic French sauce commonly paired with beef

9

bechamel

a thick cream sauce made by whisking warm seasoned milk into a roux

commonly used in recipes for "creamed spinach"

10

beurre blanc

a creamy, white, emulsified sauce made by whisking cold cubes of butter into a warm reduction of vinegar, shallots, and garlic

a classic French sauce that is often paired with chicken or fish

11

bolognese sauce

a classic Italian tomato and meat sauce 

  • made by browning meat (beef and pork) in olive oil with celery, onions, herbs, red wine, and crushed tomatoes
  • the contents are then cooked for an extended period of time and served over pasta

12

chimichurri

a condiment made from chopped parsley, garlic, oil, red pepper flakes, and vinegar

  • originates from Argentinean cuisine
  • commonly paired with grilled beef

13

cocktail sauce

sauce made from ketchup, horseradish, lemon juice, and Tabasco

to be paired with shrimp for the classic "shrimp cocktail"

14

coulis

a sauce made from cooked fruits or vegetables that are then pureed to various degrees of thickness

a common recipe is "raspberry coulis"

15

curry

a thick, spicy gravy used to cook meat, seafood, or vegetables

found in cuisines around the world with innumerable ways of preparation depending on culture and region

16

dressing

a sauce used to "dress" salad greens or vegetables

  • made from a base such a aioli, sour cream, or crème fraîche
  • examples include ranch and thousand island
  • different from a vinaigrette in that  it is thicker and its ingredients have not been emulsified

17

emulsified sauce

a sauce made from two or more liquids that have been bound into one homogeneous mixture by means of whisking or blending

  • aioli, vinaigrette, hollandaise, and béarnaise are all examples of emulsified sauces
  • a binder like mustard or egg yolks is often used to stabilize both liquids

18

gravy

sauce often made with/from juices that result from the cooking of meat or vegetables (jus)

  • often thickened with a roux
  • common in American and English cuisines

19

harissa

a spicy condiment made from ground chilies, spices, and herbs blended with olive oil

  • can be used as a paste to coat meat or vegetables
  • can also be diluted with water or broth to make a sauce
  • popular in North African cuisines

20

hoisin

thick, dark sauce most commonly made with sweet potatoes or soybeans, garlic, oil, chilies, and sweeteners

  • sweet, salty, and slightly spicy
  • often paired with "Peking Duck"
  • popular in Chinese American cuisine

21

hollandaise sauce

a warm, emulsified sauce made from water, egg yolks, clarified butter, and lemon juice

  • staple of French cuisine
  • the defining component of the dish "Eggs Benedict"

22

hummus

a thick condiment made by pureeing cooked chickpeas with garlic, olive oil, lemon juice, and (commonly) paprika

  • often eaten as a side dish to a bigger meal with pita and pickled vegetables (falafel, shawarmas, grilled meats) 
  • staple in Middle Eastern cuisines

23

jus

the natural juices released from meat during the cooking process

when something is referred to as "au jus" it is being "served in its own juices"

24

ketchup

popular, preserved tomato sauce that is seasoned with vinegar, sugar, and spices

  • the origins of the word and of this method of preservation are disputed
  • likely originated in China
  • British explorers discovered and popularized it in the 1700s

25

lyonnaise sauce

a classic French sauce made from a reduction of sauteed onions, butter, reduced white wine, and veal stock

  • traditional dishes from Lyon, France, most famous for their onions, are a staple of French cuisine
  • dishes described as "a la lyonnaise" will always incorporate sauteed onions and butter

26

marinade

a sauce that is applied to meat or vegetables prior to cooking and not meant to be eaten with the finished dish

  • marinades are often made from oil, vinegars, salt, seasonings, and spices
  • meant to enhance flavor and tenderize the corresponding ingredient
  • can be wet or dry, e.g., chili rub or ginger sesame

27

marinara sauce

thick tomato sauce made from sauteed onions, garlic, olive oil, and tomatoes 

  • stewed for hours to let flavors develop
  • basil and oregano are often added
  • staple in Southern Italian cuisine
  • used in the recipe for "spaghetti and meatballs"
  • often referred to as "gravy" in Italian American households

28

mole

dark and spicy sauce made by cooking chilies, garlic, onions, tomatoes, tortillas, nuts, spices, and chocolate in broth

  • a classic Mexican (Puebla) sauce that is used for many dishes
  • similar to barbecue sauce or curry in that many variations exist depending on region and culture

29

mornay sauce

a bechamel sauce that has been thickened with egg yolks and shredded gruyere cheese

often used to coat or glaze dishes prior to broiling or baking them

30

mustard

condiment made from mustard seeds, vinegar, sugar, and spices

  • traditional versions call for the seeds to be soaked in either beer or wine prior to mixing
  • many recipes for mustard, each resulting in different textures and flavors -- Dijon, whole grain, spicy brown, salad mustard, etc.

31

pastry cream

a custard-like sauce made from eggs, sugar, cornstarch, milk, and vanilla that is used as a filling or base for dessert dishes

32

plum sauce

dark sweet and sour condiment made from plums and/or other dried fruits blended with sugar, vinegar, ginger, and chilies

popularly paired in Chinese American cuisine with deep-fried foods

33

ponzu sauce

Japanese dipping sauce made from rice wine vinegar, bonito flakes, seaweed, and yuzu juice

34

puttanesca

potent pasta sauce made from simmered onions, garlic, anchovies, olive oil, diced tomatoes, peppers, olives, and capers

35

rémoulade

enhanced mayonnaise (aioli) created by the addition of mustard, cornichons, capers, herbs, hard-boiled eggs, and anchovies

popular condiment in French cuisine that pairs well with shellfish and cold meats

36

romesco

Spanish condiment made by mixing or blending red peppers, nuts (almonds), and garlic with olive oil

  • vinegar is often added to balance the flavors
  • pairs well with grilled or roasted fish
  • often served in a small dish and eaten throughout a meal

37

rouille

provencal French condiment made from chilies, garlic, breadcrumbs, boiled potatoes, fish/chicken livers, and fish/chicken stock

  • saffron is sometimes added as well
  • a powerful paste that is often used to intensify bouillabaisse

38

sabayon

classic French sauce made from whisking egg yolks with champagne over gentle heat until frothy

  • whipped cream, sugar, and vanilla are often added if being used for a sweet dish
  • paired commonly with poached fish as a savory sauce and with souffle as a sweet sauce
  • in French it can also refer to the Italian dessert "zabaglione"

39

sofrito

Spanish sauce made from garlic, onions, and tomatoes cooked in olive oil
  • the basis for many traditional dishes
  • many Mediterranean cultures have versions of it; over the course of time it has also made its way into Caribbean cuisines
  • pork, peppers, spices, herbs, and fruits are often added in numerous variations

40

soy sauce

dark liquid condiment made from fermented soy beans, wheat, water, and salt

  • popular in many Asian cuisines
  • often used as a base marinade to which other flavors (ginger, garlic, scallions, chilies, sesame oil) are added
  • very salty flavor

41

stock

liquid broth that has been stewed with bones, vegetables, wine, and aromatics for several hours

  • a foundational ingredient to many cuisines, especially French cuisine
  • once strained (and sometimes reduced), it is used to braise other ingredients or added to sauces
  • one of the first skills one should learn when cooking professionally

42

Tabasco sauce

an aged, spicy condiment made from fermented peppers, vinegar, and salt

  • a brand name owned and popularized by the McIlhenny Company
  • synonymous with Creole and Cajun cuisine

43

tahini sauce

condiment made from sesame paste, olive oil, lemon juice, and garlic

  • a staple of Middle Eastern cuisine
  • often eaten with falafels and pita

44

tartar sauce

mayonnaise/aioli-based condiment made through the addition of chopped cornichons, capers, parsley, and lemon juice

  • popular in English and American cuisines
  • often paired with fried fish

45

tzatziki

a yogurt-based condiment made with cucumber, dill, and olive oil

  • lemon and mint are sometimes also added
  • popular in Greek and Turkish cuisines
  • typically eaten with bread and grilled or roasted vegetables

46

vinaigrette

generic term that refers to any sauce made with one part vinegar and three parts oil (with seasonings added)

  • commonly used to dress a cold salad
  • mustard, garlic, and shallots are often used to help with the emulsification of the oil and vinegar

47

Worcestershire sauce

dark, watery condiment made from malt vinegar, molasses, sugar, and other spices

  • popular in English cuisine and used in a variety of meat dishes and cocktails
  • first made in Worcester, England by chemists Lea and Perrins in the 1800s
  • very distinct flavor and aroma that should be used carefully as to not overpower dishes

48

strong marinade made from paprika, oregano, salt, garlic, oil, and vinegar

  • popular in Spanish and Filipino cuisines as a way to preserve and enhance meats
  • many variations have been created due to cultural and regional differences

adobo

49

a cold, emulsified condiment made from eggs, vinegar, and oil

Note: similar commercial versions are commonly called mayonnaise

aioli

50

a white, creamy sauce made from butter and large amounts of cheese that is to be tossed with warm pasta

alfredo sauce

51

a dark American sauce with many different variations depending on region

most commonly made with: tomato paste, brown sugar, vinegar, chili powder, and beef stock

barbecue sauce

52

a condiment made by mixing fresh basil with olive oil, raw garlic, toasted pine nuts, parmesan cheese, and lemon juice

  • a staple in Italian cuisine
  • often eaten with freshly baked bread or tossed in a cold pasta dish

basil pesto

53

a warm, creamy, emulsified sauce made from reduced white wine vinegar, shallots, tarragon, egg yolks, and clarified butter

a classic French sauce commonly paired with beef

béarnaise

54

a thick cream sauce made by whisking warm seasoned milk into a roux

commonly used in recipes for "creamed spinach"

bechamel

55

a creamy, white, emulsified sauce made by whisking cold cubes of butter into a warm reduction of vinegar, shallots, and garlic

a classic French sauce that is often paired with chicken or fish

beurre blanc

56

a classic Italian tomato and meat sauce 

  • made by browning meat (beef and pork) in olive oil with celery, onions, herbs, red wine, and crushed tomatoes
  • the contents are then cooked for an extended period of time and served over pasta

bolognese sauce

57

a condiment made from chopped parsley, garlic, oil, red pepper flakes, and vinegar

  • originates from Argentinean cuisine
  • commonly paired with grilled beef

chimichurri

58

sauce made from ketchup, horseradish, lemon juice, and Tabasco

to be paired with shrimp for the classic "shrimp cocktail"

cocktail sauce

59

a sauce made from cooked fruits or vegetables that are then pureed to various degrees of thickness

a common recipe is "raspberry coulis"

coulis

60

a thick, spicy gravy used to cook meat, seafood, or vegetables

found in cuisines around the world with innumerable ways of preparation depending on culture and region

curry

61

a sauce used to "dress" salad greens or vegetables

  • made from a base such a aioli, sour cream, or crème fraîche
  • examples include ranch and thousand island
  • different from a vinaigrette in that  it is thicker and its ingredients have not been emulsified

dressing

62

a sauce made from two or more liquids that have been bound into one homogeneous mixture by means of whisking or blending

  • aioli, vinaigrette, hollandaise, and béarnaise are all examples of emulsified sauces
  • a binder like mustard or egg yolks is often used to stabilize both liquids

emulsified sauce

63

sauce often made with/from juices that result from the cooking of meat or vegetables (jus)

  • often thickened with a roux
  • common in American and English cuisines

gravy

64

a spicy condiment made from ground chilies, spices, and herbs blended with olive oil

  • can be used as a paste to coat meat or vegetables
  • can also be diluted with water or broth to make a sauce
  • popular in North African cuisines

harissa

65

thick, dark sauce most commonly made with sweet potatoes or soybeans, garlic, oil, chilies, and sweeteners

  • sweet, salty, and slightly spicy
  • often paired with "Peking Duck"
  • popular in Chinese American cuisine

hoisin

66

a warm, emulsified sauce made from water, egg yolks, clarified butter, and lemon juice

  • staple of French cuisine
  • the defining component of the dish "Eggs Benedict"

hollandaise sauce

67

a thick condiment made by pureeing cooked chickpeas with garlic, olive oil, lemon juice, and (commonly) paprika

  • often eaten as a side dish to a bigger meal with pita and pickled vegetables (falafel, shawarmas, grilled meats) 
  • staple in Middle Eastern cuisines

hummus

68

the natural juices released from meat during the cooking process

when something is referred to as "au jus" it is being "served in its own juices"

jus

69

popular, preserved tomato sauce that is seasoned with vinegar, sugar, and spices

  • the origins of the word and of this method of preservation are disputed
  • likely originated in China
  • British explorers discovered and popularized it in the 1700s

ketchup

70

a classic French sauce made from a reduction of sauteed onions, butter, reduced white wine, and veal stock

  • traditional dishes from Lyon, France, most famous for their onions, are a staple of French cuisine
  • dishes described as "a la lyonnaise" will always incorporate sauteed onions and butter

lyonnaise sauce

71

a sauce that is applied to meat or vegetables prior to cooking and not meant to be eaten with the finished dish

  • marinades are often made from oil, vinegars, salt, seasonings, and spices
  • meant to enhance flavor and tenderize the corresponding ingredient
  • can be wet or dry, e.g., chili rub or ginger sesame

marinade

72

thick tomato sauce made from sauteed onions, garlic, olive oil, and tomatoes 

  • stewed for hours to let flavors develop
  • basil and oregano are often added
  • staple in Southern Italian cuisine
  • used in the recipe for "spaghetti and meatballs"
  • often referred to as "gravy" in Italian American households

marinara sauce

73

dark and spicy sauce made by cooking chilies, garlic, onions, tomatoes, tortillas, nuts, spices, and chocolate in broth

  • a classic Mexican (Puebla) sauce that is used for many dishes
  • similar to barbecue sauce or curry in that many variations exist depending on region and culture

mole

74

a bechamel sauce that has been thickened with egg yolks and shredded gruyere cheese

often used to coat or glaze dishes prior to broiling or baking them

mornay sauce

75

condiment made from mustard seeds, vinegar, sugar, and spices

  • traditional versions call for the seeds to be soaked in either beer or wine prior to mixing
  • many recipes for mustard, each resulting in different textures and flavors -- Dijon, whole grain, spicy brown, salad mustard, etc.

mustard

76

a custard-like sauce made from eggs, sugar, cornstarch, milk, and vanilla that is used as a filling or base for dessert dishes

pastry cream

77

dark sweet and sour condiment made from plums and/or other dried fruits blended with sugar, vinegar, ginger, and chilies

popularly paired in Chinese American cuisine with deep-fried foods

plum sauce

78

Japanese dipping sauce made from rice wine vinegar, bonito flakes, seaweed, and yuzu juice

ponzu sauce

79

potent pasta sauce made from simmered onions, garlic, anchovies, olive oil, diced tomatoes, peppers, olives, and capers

puttanesca

80

enhanced mayonnaise (aioli) created by the addition of mustard, cornichons, capers, herbs, hard-boiled eggs, and anchovies

popular condiment in French cuisine that pairs well with shellfish and cold meats

rémoulade

81

Spanish condiment made by mixing or blending red peppers, nuts (almonds), and garlic with olive oil

  • vinegar is often added to balance the flavors
  • pairs well with grilled or roasted fish
  • often served in a small dish and eaten throughout a meal

romesco

82

provencal French condiment made from chilies, garlic, breadcrumbs, boiled potatoes, fish/chicken livers, and fish/chicken stock

  • saffron is sometimes added as well
  • a powerful paste that is often used to intensify bouillabaisse

rouille

83

classic French sauce made from whisking egg yolks with champagne over gentle heat until frothy

  • whipped cream, sugar, and vanilla are often added if being used for a sweet dish
  • paired commonly with poached fish as a savory sauce and with souffle as a sweet sauce
  • in French it can also refer to the Italian dessert "zabaglione"

sabayon

84

Spanish sauce made from garlic, onions, and tomatoes cooked in olive oil
  • the basis for many traditional dishes
  • many Mediterranean cultures have versions of it; over the course of time it has also made its way into Caribbean cuisines
  • pork, peppers, spices, herbs, and fruits are often added in numerous variations

sofrito

85

dark liquid condiment made from fermented soy beans, wheat, water, and salt

  • popular in many Asian cuisines
  • often used as a base marinade to which other flavors (ginger, garlic, scallions, chilies, sesame oil) are added
  • very salty flavor

soy sauce

86

liquid broth that has been stewed with bones, vegetables, wine, and aromatics for several hours

  • a foundational ingredient to many cuisines, especially French cuisine
  • once strained (and sometimes reduced), it is used to braise other ingredients or added to sauces
  • one of the first skills one should learn when cooking professionally

stock

87

an aged, spicy condiment made from fermented peppers, vinegar, and salt

  • a brand name owned and popularized by the McIlhenny Company
  • synonymous with Creole and Cajun cuisine

Tabasco sauce

88

condiment made from sesame paste, olive oil, lemon juice, and garlic

  • a staple of Middle Eastern cuisine
  • often eaten with falafels and pita

tahini sauce

89

mayonnaise/aioli-based condiment made through the addition of chopped cornichons, capers, parsley, and lemon juice

  • popular in English and American cuisines
  • often paired with fried fish

tartar sauce

90

a yogurt-based condiment made with cucumber, dill, and olive oil

  • lemon and mint are sometimes also added
  • popular in Greek and Turkish cuisines
  • typically eaten with bread and grilled or roasted vegetables

tzatziki

91

generic term that refers to any sauce made with one part vinegar and three parts oil (with seasonings added)

  • commonly used to dress a cold salad
  • mustard, garlic, and shallots are often used to help with the emulsification of the oil and vinegar

vinaigrette

92

dark, watery condiment made from malt vinegar, molasses, sugar, and other spices

  • popular in English cuisine and used in a variety of meat dishes and cocktails
  • first made in Worcester, England by chemists Lea and Perrins in the 1800s
  • very distinct flavor and aroma that should be used carefully as to not overpower dishes

Worcestershire sauce

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