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Flashcards in Cooking Terms old Deck (320):
1

aioli

a sauce made with olive oil and garlic, although eggs are sometimes added

2

à la nage

poaching (usually seafood) in a court bouillon with the vegetables around the food as part the garnish

3

albumen

another name for egg whites

4

al dente

pasta cooked just until enough resistance is left in it to be felt "by the tooth"

5

aromatics

herbs and spices which are added to enhance the flavor and fragrance of food

6

au jus

of a dish (such as beef) served in its own juices

7

bain-marie

refers to a pan of water used while baking to prevent uneven cooking (of a cake or custard)

8

bake

cook inside an oven (sometimes called roasting)

9

baste

to moisten food during cooking with pan drippings, sauce or some other liquid to prevent the food from drying out

10

batter

a mixture of flour and liquid with the addition of flour, eggs, and sometimes fat to prepare cakes, muffins, and pancakes (Note: dough holds its shape whereas batter does not)

11

battuto

a combination of chopped raw carrots, celery, onion, parsley and/or garlic which is sautéed (usually in Italian food)

12

béarnaise

a warm emulsified egg and butter sauce which is similar to hollandaise except it is made with white wine, shallots, and tarragon

13

beat

effortful mixing to smooth and/or add air into a mixture

14

bisque

soup made from a pureed vegetables, rice, cream, and seafood like lobster and crab

15

blackened

a Cajun style of cooking where meat or fish is seasoned with spices and butter, then cooked over high heat in a super-heated skillet until charred on the outside

16

blanch

placing fruits or nuts in boiling water to remove skins or to make them easy to peel

17

blend

to mix two or more ingredients together until smooth and uniform

18

blind bake

to bake a pie crust without any filling; done so that the crust does not get soggy or if the filling would overcook if baked at the same time as the crust

19

boil

cooking food in very hot water

20

bouillon

the liquid (broth) resulting from simmering meats and vegetables to the point where all of the nutrients of the solid are in the liquid (also made with bouillon cubes)

21

braise

slowly cook in a small amount of liquid so that the liquid has concentrated flavor and the meat is tenderized; note that stewing uses much more liquid

22

bread

to coat foods that are going to be cooked with a bread crumb mixture to create a crust

23

brine

a salt, water, and seasoned solution used to preserve foods

24

brioche

two rows of dough fused together by baking

25

broil

to cook food directly under the heat source (usually a gas flame)

26

brown

to briefly apply heat to meat so that it turns brownish (appealing to the eye) and improve taste

27

brush

using a pastry brush to coat a food (like meat) with a liquid (like a sauce)

28

butterfly

to cut open a food (like a chicken breast), down the center without cutting all the way through, so that it can be spread apart; this creates more surface area for faster cooking

29

caramelize

gently browning certain foods (such as meats, onions, and carrots) to release their natural sugars and improve taste; also refers to heating sugar so that it turns to caramel

30

candy

to cook fruit with sugar

31

chiffonade

herbs and leafy greens rolled together and then cut into thin ribbons

32

chill

refrigerate food or let it stand in ice or iced water until cold

33

chop

to cut food into small (irregular) pieces with a knife

34

clarify

to remove the impurities (fat) from a broth; the fat rises to the top and can be spooned out or strained; sometimes egg whites are used in this process because fat particles tend to stick to the egg whites

35

coat

to evenly cover food with flour, bread crumbs or a batter before cooking

36

coddling

to cook (usually eggs) in water that is just below the point of boiling

37

combine

to mix two or more ingredients together

38

compote

a fruit desert which is cooked in a sugar/syrup and flavored with spices

39

consommé

stock/soup that has been clarified by simmering it with beaten egg whites which attract and trap the impurities clouding the broth; the result is a very clear stock because the fats have risen to the top and removed

40

cook

to prepare food by applying heat

41

corned

meat that has been cured and salted

42

core

to remove the center part of a fruit or vegetable so that the part used is without seeds and/or the tough, inedible center

43

coulis

a thick sauce made from strained fruits and/or vegetables; no seeds or skin are in the sauce

44

cream

to beat vegetable shortening, butter, and/or margarine, with or without sugar, until light and fluffy for baking a cake

45

crêpe

a very thin pancake made with egg batter often served with a sweet filling

46

crimp

to pinch or press dough edges (like a piecrust) to create a decorative finish, and/or to lock in the filling so it does not come out during baking

47

crisp

to make vegetables more firm by briefly placing them in cold water

48

crudités

an appetizer of sliced vegetables dipped in a dressing

49

cure

preserve and flavor a food by covered it with salt and/or sugar, and other seasonings

50

dash

1/8th of a teaspoon

51

deep-fry

cooking food by completely covering it in very hot oil/fat

52

deglaze

after cooking food in a pan, adding some liquid (broth or wine) so that the hardened juices can be scraped off the pan and integrated back into the sauce

53

demi-glace

a thick sauce of equal parts veal stock and espagnole sauce (very dark brown roux, pieces of beef, bones, vegetables, and towards the end, tomato paste) which is then reduced

54

develop

to permit food to sit before serving so that the flavors have time to merge and settle

55

devein

to remove the large, dark vein that runs lengthwise in shrimp

56

devil

to coat with a spicy mixture like hot sauce or mustard; eggs are often deviled

57

dice

to cut into small 1/4 inch cubes

58

direct heat

type of cooking where the heat is making "direct" contact with the food (like grilling or stir-frying)

59

dissolve

to mix a dry ingredient with a liquid so that they are combined into a single solution

60

dot

to sprinkle a small amount of an ingredient over another food (e.g., nuts, butter, or chocolate)

61

dredge

to completely and evenly cover a wet food with a coating of an ingredient (e.g., bread crumbs, sugar, or flour)

62

drippings

the liquid that remains in the pan/pot after food has been cooked; often reused for sauces and dressings

63

drizzle

to slowly pour a liquid (e.g., truffle oil or butter) back and forth over a food

64

dust

to lightly cover a food with an ingredient (like powered sugar, cocoa powder, or flour)

65

egg wash

a mixture of eggs, oil, and water, which is then blushed over items covered in flour, which is then deep fried or pan fried

66

emulsify

to bind to liquids together that normal don't mix (like water and oil);

67

entrée

the main course of the meal (traditionally, the course after soup but before the main course)

68

essence

the concentrated flavor of an item (like vanilla extract)

69

étouffée

cooking with little or no liquid in a covered pan; also a Cajun style of stew

70

fillet

to remove the bones from meat or fish

71

fold

to combine ingredients by putting them in a bowl and lightly cutting them with the side of a spoon and gently adding air in

72

Fricassée

a stew with meat (usually chicken) which is first braised, and then served with its sauce

73

frittata

a half baked-half fried omelet

74

fritter

a food which is first covered with crumbs or a batter, and then fried

75

fry

to cook with some oil/fat in a pan

76

garnish

an edible ingredient which is added last to a dish to make it more attractive to the eye (like nuts or parsley)

77

glaze

a liquid which adds shine to a food

78

grate

rubbing a food on a rough surface so that the food shreds

79

grease

to coat a pan with an oil/butter so the food does not stick to the pan

80

grill

to cook over a flame (usually wood coals)

81

grind

to cut food (like nuts) into much smaller pieces by using a food processor

82

gratin

a food baked in a shallow dish with a liquid (like cream), often with a crust of bread crumbs or cheese

83

gravy

a jus (natural juices) that has been thickened by a roux

84

hack

to cut meat into large pieces while leaving the meat on the bone (so that it is more flavorful and moist after cooking)

85

hash

chopped meat which has been blended with potatoes (and/or other vegetables), sauteed, and then seasoned

86

Hollandaise

a sauce made with eggs yokes, melted butter with lemon juice, and a vinegar reduction

87

julienne

to cut food into very thin long strips (like carrots or celery)

88

jus

the natural juices released by cooking meats (and, to a lesser extent, vegetables)

89

knead

to press dough with the heel of your hands so that it becomes elastic and smooth

90

kosher

food that has been prepared in a manner that in consistent with Jewish dietary laws

91

leaven

to rise when baked (like bread); occurs because certain ingredients like yeast produce a gas which expands from heat or a chemical reaction

92

loin

a cut of meat below the ribs, usually less fatty than other cuts of meat

93

lukewarm

about the same temperature as the human body; neither warm nor cold

94

marinate

allowing a meat to sit in a flavorful liquid and absorb the flavor of the liquid; allows the meat to stay moist after it's been cooked

95

marinade

a seasoned liquid in which meat is soaked before cooking

96

mash

to beat or press a food (e.g., potatoes) so that there are no lumps

97

melt

to heat a food until it becomes a liquid (like cheese)

98

meringue

eggs whites which are beaten until thickened, and then sweetened with sugar

99

mince

to cut into very small pieces with a knife

100

mix

to stir two or more ingredients so that they are completely combined

101

miso

fermented rice, barley, and/or soybeans with kajikin (a Japanese fungus) which yields a thick paste

102

mousse

any mixture which is lightened so that it's airy (usually with egg whites or whipped cream)

103

moisten

adding just a little bit of liquid to dry ingredients to slightly dampen them

104

nori

seaweed which has been processed so that it is a very thin sheet (used for wrapping sushi)

105

pan-broil

cooking meat uncovered in a pan with high heat while removing the liquid fat generated

106

pan-fry

cooking in a pan with high heat and some butter/oil, only flipping the ingredients once or twice

107

parbroil

cooking partially in boiling water

108

parchment paper

heat-resistant paper used to line pans and trays when baking (e.g., for cookies)

109

pare

to cut away the exterior layer of a fruit or vegetable

110

peel

to remove the outer covering of a fruit or vegetable (e.g., bananas)

111

persillade

a chopped mixture of parsley and garlic

112

pilaf

a technique for making rice; first sautéed in butter and then simmered in water or stock until done

113

pinch

the amount of seasoning that you can hold between your thumb and forefinger (a tiny amount)

114

pipe

to force food through a pastry tip to decorate a food (like icing on a cake)

115

poach

to cook food completely submerged in simmering liquid while making sure the food retains its shape

116

pound

to flatten meats (like chicken and veal) to a uniform thickness so that pieces cook at the same rate, cool at the same rate, and are tender

117

preheat

to heat the oven to the correct temperature before food is placed in the oven

118

pressure cooking

using steam trapped under a locked lid to produce high temperatures and achieve fast cooking time

119

prick

to make holes in food before cooking (like sausage) so that the food retains its shape

120

punch-down

to pound dough down after it has risen to remove air and prepare it for kneading

121

purée

blending, mixing or mashing foods until they are completely smooth (liquefied)

122

reduce

to decrease the liquid in a mixture (by evaporation) to intensify flavor and/or thicken the mixture

123

refresh

after cooking vegetables, immediately rinsing them in cold water to stop any additional cooking

124

resting

after cooking meat, letting it simply sit for 10 to 20 minutes before serving, so juices are less likely to run out of the meat when cut

125

roast

cooking uncovered and without liquid (unless basting) in an oven to create a browned exterior

126

roulade

meat rolled (wrapped) around a cheese, vegetables, or other meats and then braised

127

roux

a mixture of flour and butter (or oil) which is then heated, and added to soups and sauces to thicken them (often used in Cajun foods).

128

Sabayon

a sauce made by beating an egg yokes usually, with champagne or wine, over a very gentle heat

129

sautée

rapidly turning and moving the food around in a pan over high heat and a little oil/fat so that it cooks quickly and becomes tender

130

scald

to heat milk to just below boiling, or to put fruits or vegetables in boiling water momentarily to skin them more easily

131

scramble

to stir/mix food while it's cooking (like eggs)

132

score

making shallow cuts in meat before cooking so that it gets tenderized during cooking and flavors (like from a marinade) get better absorbed

133

sear

browning the exterior of meat or fish by subjecting it to very high heat for a short period of time; also seals in flavor

134

season

to add ingredients such as salt, pepper, oregano, etc. to give the food more flavor

135

shave

to cut very thin slices of food (usually cheese or chocolate) for the sake of presentation

136

shirred eggs

eggs (whites and yokes) that are placed in a bowl which are then covered with bread crumbs, cream and/or butter, and then baked while inside the bowl

137

sift

to move dry ingredients (like flour) through a mesh/sieve to make them lighter

138

simmer

to keep a liquid barely boiling

139

skewer

a metal or wooden pin that is pushed through foods for the cooking process (like shish kabob)

140

skim

to remove and then discard the fat or foam from the top of a broth, sauce, soup, or dressing

141

soufflé

a light, fluffy, baked cake made with eggs and cream, and other ingredients for flavoring

142

stir

to mix usually with a folk or spoon so that the ingredients have been integrated

143

stir-fry

cooking in a wok (or a large pan) with high heat, a little oil, and constantly and rapidly moving the ingredients in the wok around

144

steam

cooking by placing food over boiling water so that the steam cooks the food; usually helps food retain their color, texture, and shape

145

steep

to submerge an ingredient in hot water to extract flavor and/or color (e.g., tea)

146

stew

to cook over low heat, covered with liquid, for a long period of time

147

stock

a liquid in which vegetables or meat has been cooked

148

sweat

to cook in a covered or semi-covered pan over low heat to release juices

149

tart

a pie which only has crust on the bottom

150

temper

to heat food gently before adding it to a hot mixture so it does not separate or curdle

151

tempura

a Japanese style of coating vegetables and shellfish with a cornstarch batter and then deep-frying

152

thin

reducing a mixture's thickness by adding more liquid (like water, milk, cream, etc).

153

toast

to heat in order to dry or brown the surface (e.g., bread)

154

toss

to mix gently (e.g., salad)

155

truss

to tie meat with metal or wooden pins or skewers so it retains its shape when cooked

156

unleavened

baked goods made without baking powder, baking soda, or yeast to give them volume

157

vinaigrette

a generic term that refers to any dressing made with one part vinegar and three parts oil, with seasonings added

158

water bath

a technique that cooks ingredients in a container that is placed in boiling water in order to apply gentle and even heat

159

whip

to rapidly mix air into the mixture and make it "light" and fluffy

160

zest

the thin outer part of the rind of citrus fruits which contain flavorful oils

161

a sauce made with olive oil and garlic, although eggs are sometimes added

aioli

162

poaching (usually seafood) in a court bouillon with the vegetables around the food as part the garnish

à la nage

163

another name for egg whites

albumen

164

pasta cooked just until enough resistance is left in it to be felt "by the tooth"

al dente

165

herbs and spices which are added to enhance the flavor and fragrance of food

aromatics

166

of a dish (such as beef) served in its own juices

au jus

167

refers to a pan of water used while baking to prevent uneven cooking (of a cake or custard)

bain-marie

168

cook inside an oven (sometimes called roasting)

bake

169

to moisten food during cooking with pan drippings, sauce or some other liquid to prevent the food from drying out

baste

170

a mixture of flour and liquid with the addition of flour, eggs, and sometimes fat to prepare cakes, muffins, and pancakes (Note: dough holds its shape whereas batter does not)

batter

171

a combination of chopped raw carrots, celery, onion, parsley and/or garlic which is sautéed (usually in Italian food)

battuto

172

a warm emulsified egg and butter sauce which is similar to hollandaise except it is made with white wine, shallots, and tarragon

béarnaise

173

effortful mixing to smooth and/or add air into a mixture

beat

174

soup made from a pureed vegetables, rice, cream, and seafood like lobster and crab

bisque

175

a Cajun style of cooking where meat or fish is seasoned with spices and butter, then cooked over high heat in a super-heated skillet until charred on the outside

blackened

176

placing fruits or nuts in boiling water to remove skins or to make them easy to peel

blanch

177

to mix two or more ingredients together until smooth and uniform

blend

178

to bake a pie crust without any filling; done so that the crust does not get soggy or if the filling would overcook if baked at the same time as the crust

blind bake

179

cooking food in very hot water

boil

180

the liquid (broth) resulting from simmering meats and vegetables to the point where all of the nutrients of the solid are in the liquid (also made with bouillon cubes)

bouillon

181

slowly cook in a small amount of liquid so that the liquid has concentrated flavor and the meat is tenderized; note that stewing uses much more liquid

braise

182

to coat foods that are going to be cooked with a bread crumb mixture to create a crust

bread

183

a salt, water, and seasoned solution used to preserve foods

brine

184

two rows of dough fused together by baking

brioche

185

to cook food directly under the heat source (usually a gas flame)

broil

186

to briefly apply heat to meat so that it turns brownish (appealing to the eye) and improve taste

brown

187

using a pastry brush to coat a food (like meat) with a liquid (like a sauce)

brush

188

to cut open a food (like a chicken breast), down the center without cutting all the way through, so that it can be spread apart; this creates more surface area for faster cooking

butterfly

189

gently browning certain foods (such as meats, onions, and carrots) to release their natural sugars and improve taste; also refers to heating sugar so that it turns to caramel

caramelize

190

to cook fruit with sugar

candy

191

herbs and leafy greens rolled together and then cut into thin ribbons

chiffonade

192

refrigerate food or let it stand in ice or iced water until cold

chill

193

to cut food into small (irregular) pieces with a knife

chop

194

to remove the impurities (fat) from a broth; the fat rises to the top and can be spooned out or strained; sometimes egg whites are used in this process because fat particles tend to stick to the egg whites

clarify

195

to evenly cover food with flour, bread crumbs or a batter before cooking

coat

196

to cook (usually eggs) in water that is just below the point of boiling

coddling

197

to mix two or more ingredients together

combine

198

a fruit desert which is cooked in a sugar/syrup and flavored with spices

compote

199

stock/soup that has been clarified by simmering it with beaten egg whites which attract and trap the impurities clouding the broth; the result is a very clear stock because the fats have risen to the top and removed

consommé

200

to prepare food by applying heat

cook

201

meat that has been cured and salted

corned

202

to remove the center part of a fruit or vegetable so that the part used is without seeds and/or the tough, inedible center

core

203

a thick sauce made from strained fruits and/or vegetables; no seeds or skin are in the sauce

coulis

204

to beat vegetable shortening, butter, and/or margarine, with or without sugar, until light and fluffy for baking a cake

cream

205

a very thin pancake made with egg batter often served with a sweet filling

crêpe

206

to pinch or press dough edges (like a piecrust) to create a decorative finish, and/or to lock in the filling so it does not come out during baking

crimp

207

to make vegetables more firm by briefly placing them in cold water

crisp

208

an appetizer of sliced vegetables dipped in a dressing

crudités

209

preserve and flavor a food by covered it with salt and/or sugar, and other seasonings

cure

210

1/8th of a teaspoon

dash

211

cooking food by completely covering it in very hot oil/fat

deep-fry

212

after cooking food in a pan, adding some liquid (broth or wine) so that the hardened juices can be scraped off the pan and integrated back into the sauce

deglaze

213

a thick sauce of equal parts veal stock and espagnole sauce (very dark brown roux, pieces of beef, bones, vegetables, and towards the end, tomato paste) which is then reduced

demi-glace

214

to permit food to sit before serving so that the flavors have time to merge and settle

develop

215

to remove the large, dark vein that runs lengthwise in shrimp

devein

216

to coat with a spicy mixture like hot sauce or mustard; eggs are often deviled

devil

217

to cut into small 1/4 inch cubes

dice

218

type of cooking where the heat is making "direct" contact with the food (like grilling or stir-frying)

direct heat

219

to mix a dry ingredient with a liquid so that they are combined into a single solution

dissolve

220

to sprinkle a small amount of an ingredient over another food (e.g., nuts, butter, or chocolate)

dot

221

to completely and evenly cover a wet food with a coating of an ingredient (e.g., bread crumbs, sugar, or flour)

dredge

222

the liquid that remains in the pan/pot after food has been cooked; often reused for sauces and dressings

drippings

223

to slowly pour a liquid (e.g., truffle oil or butter) back and forth over a food

drizzle

224

to lightly cover a food with an ingredient (like powered sugar, cocoa powder, or flour)

dust

225

a mixture of eggs, oil, and water, which is then blushed over items covered in flour, which is then deep fried or pan fried

egg wash

226

to bind to liquids together that normal don't mix (like water and oil);

emulsify

227

the main course of the meal (traditionally, the course after soup but before the main course)

entrée

228

the concentrated flavor of an item (like vanilla extract)

essence

229

cooking with little or no liquid in a covered pan; also a Cajun style of stew

étouffée

230

to remove the bones from meat or fish

fillet

231

to combine ingredients by putting them in a bowl and lightly cutting them with the side of a spoon and gently adding air in

fold

232

a stew with meat (usually chicken) which is first braised, and then served with its sauce

Fricassée

233

a half baked-half fried omelet

frittata

234

a food which is first covered with crumbs or a batter, and then fried

fritter

235

to cook with some oil/fat in a pan

fry

236

an edible ingredient which is added last to a dish to make it more attractive to the eye (like nuts or parsley)

garnish

237

a liquid which adds shine to a food

glaze

238

rubbing a food on a rough surface so that the food shreds

grate

239

to coat a pan with an oil/butter so the food does not stick to the pan

grease

240

to cook over a flame (usually wood coals)

grill

241

to cut food (like nuts) into much smaller pieces by using a food processor

grind

242

a food baked in a shallow dish with a liquid (like cream), often with a crust of bread crumbs or cheese

gratin

243

a jus (natural juices) that has been thickened by a roux

gravy

244

to cut meat into large pieces while leaving the meat on the bone (so that it is more flavorful and moist after cooking)

hack

245

chopped meat which has been blended with potatoes (and/or other vegetables), sauteed, and then seasoned

hash

246

a sauce made with eggs yokes, melted butter with lemon juice, and a vinegar reduction

Hollandaise

247

to cut food into very thin long strips (like carrots or celery)

julienne

248

the natural juices released by cooking meats (and, to a lesser extent, vegetables)

jus

249

to press dough with the heel of your hands so that it becomes elastic and smooth

knead

250

food that has been prepared in a manner that in consistent with Jewish dietary laws

kosher

251

to rise when baked (like bread); occurs because certain ingredients like yeast produce a gas which expands from heat or a chemical reaction

leaven

252

a cut of meat below the ribs, usually less fatty than other cuts of meat

loin

253

about the same temperature as the human body; neither warm nor cold

lukewarm

254

allowing a meat to sit in a flavorful liquid and absorb the flavor of the liquid; allows the meat to stay moist after it's been cooked

marinate

255

a seasoned liquid in which meat is soaked before cooking

marinade

256

to beat or press a food (e.g., potatoes) so that there are no lumps

mash

257

to heat a food until it becomes a liquid (like cheese)

melt

258

eggs whites which are beaten until thickened, and then sweetened with sugar

meringue

259

to cut into very small pieces with a knife

mince

260

to stir two or more ingredients so that they are completely combined

mix

261

fermented rice, barley, and/or soybeans with kajikin (a Japanese fungus) which yields a thick paste

miso

262

any mixture which is lightened so that it's airy (usually with egg whites or whipped cream)

mousse

263

adding just a little bit of liquid to dry ingredients to slightly dampen them

moisten

264

seaweed which has been processed so that it is a very thin sheet (used for wrapping sushi)

nori

265

cooking meat uncovered in a pan with high heat while removing the liquid fat generated

pan-broil

266

cooking in a pan with high heat and some butter/oil, only flipping the ingredients once or twice

pan-fry

267

cooking partially in boiling water

parbroil

268

heat-resistant paper used to line pans and trays when baking (e.g., for cookies)

parchment paper

269

to cut away the exterior layer of a fruit or vegetable

pare

270

to remove the outer covering of a fruit or vegetable (e.g., bananas)

peel

271

a chopped mixture of parsley and garlic

persillade

272

a technique for making rice; first sautéed in butter and then simmered in water or stock until done

pilaf

273

the amount of seasoning that you can hold between your thumb and forefinger (a tiny amount)

pinch

274

to force food through a pastry tip to decorate a food (like icing on a cake)

pipe

275

to cook food completely submerged in simmering liquid while making sure the food retains its shape

poach

276

to flatten meats (like chicken and veal) to a uniform thickness so that pieces cook at the same rate, cool at the same rate, and are tender

pound

277

to heat the oven to the correct temperature before food is placed in the oven

preheat

278

using steam trapped under a locked lid to produce high temperatures and achieve fast cooking time

pressure cooking

279

to make holes in food before cooking (like sausage) so that the food retains its shape

prick

280

to pound dough down after it has risen to remove air and prepare it for kneading

punch-down

281

blending, mixing or mashing foods until they are completely smooth (liquefied)

purée

282

to decrease the liquid in a mixture (by evaporation) to intensify flavor and/or thicken the mixture

reduce

283

after cooking vegetables, immediately rinsing them in cold water to stop any additional cooking

refresh

284

after cooking meat, letting it simply sit for 10 to 20 minutes before serving, so juices are less likely to run out of the meat when cut

resting

285

cooking uncovered and without liquid (unless basting) in an oven to create a browned exterior

roast

286

meat rolled (wrapped) around a cheese, vegetables, or other meats and then braised

roulade

287

a mixture of flour and butter (or oil) which is then heated, and added to soups and sauces to thicken them (often used in Cajun foods).

roux

288

a sauce made by beating an egg yokes usually, with champagne or wine, over a very gentle heat

Sabayon

289

rapidly turning and moving the food around in a pan over high heat and a little oil/fat so that it cooks quickly and becomes tender

sautée

290

to heat milk to just below boiling, or to put fruits or vegetables in boiling water momentarily to skin them more easily

scald

291

to stir/mix food while it's cooking (like eggs)

scramble

292

making shallow cuts in meat before cooking so that it gets tenderized during cooking and flavors (like from a marinade) get better absorbed

score

293

browning the exterior of meat or fish by subjecting it to very high heat for a short period of time; also seals in flavor

sear

294

to add ingredients such as salt, pepper, oregano, etc. to give the food more flavor

season

295

to cut very thin slices of food (usually cheese or chocolate) for the sake of presentation

shave

296

eggs (whites and yokes) that are placed in a bowl which are then covered with bread crumbs, cream and/or butter, and then baked while inside the bowl

shirred eggs

297

to move dry ingredients (like flour) through a mesh/sieve to make them lighter

sift

298

to keep a liquid barely boiling

simmer

299

a metal or wooden pin that is pushed through foods for the cooking process (like shish kabob)

skewer

300

to remove and then discard the fat or foam from the top of a broth, sauce, soup, or dressing

skim

301

a light, fluffy, baked cake made with eggs and cream, and other ingredients for flavoring

soufflé

302

to mix usually with a folk or spoon so that the ingredients have been integrated

stir

303

cooking in a wok (or a large pan) with high heat, a little oil, and constantly and rapidly moving the ingredients in the wok around

stir-fry

304

cooking by placing food over boiling water so that the steam cooks the food; usually helps food retain their color, texture, and shape

steam

305

to submerge an ingredient in hot water to extract flavor and/or color (e.g., tea)

steep

306

to cook over low heat, covered with liquid, for a long period of time

stew

307

a liquid in which vegetables or meat has been cooked

stock

308

to cook in a covered or semi-covered pan over low heat to release juices

sweat

309

a pie which only has crust on the bottom

tart

310

to heat food gently before adding it to a hot mixture so it does not separate or curdle

temper

311

a Japanese style of coating vegetables and shellfish with a cornstarch batter and then deep-frying

tempura

312

reducing a mixture's thickness by adding more liquid (like water, milk, cream, etc).

thin

313

to heat in order to dry or brown the surface (e.g., bread)

toast

314

to mix gently (e.g., salad)

toss

315

to tie meat with metal or wooden pins or skewers so it retains its shape when cooked

truss

316

baked goods made without baking powder, baking soda, or yeast to give them volume

unleavened

317

a generic term that refers to any dressing made with one part vinegar and three parts oil, with seasonings added

vinaigrette

318

a technique that cooks ingredients in a container that is placed in boiling water in order to apply gentle and even heat

water bath

319

to rapidly mix air into the mixture and make it "light" and fluffy

whip

320

the thin outer part of the rind of citrus fruits which contain flavorful oils

zest

Decks in Uncategorized Class (207):