Flashcards in Diabetes Complications Deck (22):
One of every ________ healthcare dollars is spent on diabetes.
The leading causes of death in those with diabetes is ____________.
ischemic heart disease (#1) and other heart diseases (#2)
If you have diabetes and you've never had a heart attack, your risk of having a heart attack is the same (roughly) as someone who ____________.
does not have diabetes but has had a heart attack
Those with diabetes have much poorer survival post-______ than those without.
Insulin suppresses the production of _____________.
triglycerides; defects in insulin lead to hypertriglyceridemia
True or false: statins are contraindicated in those with diabetes.
Heck no! Every person 40-75 with diabetes should be receiving a statin; it lowers numerous kinds of mortality.
______ is made in excess in those with diabetes, leading to clots.
PAI-1 (plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1)
Why are some tissues preferentially affected by hyperglycemia?
Some tissues – like the retina, nerves, and pericytes of the retina – contain aldose reductase that initiates the polyol pathway by converting glucose to sorbitol; the downstream product accumulates on proteins and destroys cells. (There are a couple other pathways.)
What is it called when an amino group binds to a glucose?
Schiff bases transition to __________, which themselves transition to _____________ – an irreversible product.
Amadori product; advanced glycation end products
Why are advanced glycation end products deleterious?
Because they have a high affinity for amino groups on other collagen molecules and cross-link collagen; additionally, they bind to fat more easily, thus causing plaques to form
After ten years with diabetes, ______ percent of people will develop diabetic retinopathy.
Early intensive control of diabetic retinopathy leads to a "_________" effect.
legacy (in which people had better outcomes even years after the study interventions ended)
True or false: about two-thirds of people with diabetes will develop diabetic nephropathy.
False. Only one-third.
Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy – the most common form of diabetic neuropathy – initially presents with ___________ and then progresses to ____________.
hyperalgesia; absence of pain
Roughly 80% of hospitalizations and deaths from diabetes are due to ________________.
Early intensive control of blood sugar in diabetics has been shown to _______________.
decrease future risk of cardiovascular events
Fibroblasts are stimulated to produce more ECM by excess ____________ activity.
protein kinase C
What is mononeuritis multiplex?
Vascular occlusion of the blood supply to one nerve – can improve with time
Diabetes is the number one cause of ______________.
blindness, renal failure, and non-traumatic foot amputations
Aldose reductase is a potential therapeutic target is the ___________ pathway.