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Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Diabetes Complications > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Complications Deck (22):
1

One of every ________ healthcare dollars is spent on diabetes.

seven

2

The leading causes of death in those with diabetes is ____________.

ischemic heart disease (#1) and other heart diseases (#2)

3

If you have diabetes and you've never had a heart attack, your risk of having a heart attack is the same (roughly) as someone who ____________.

does not have diabetes but has had a heart attack

4

Those with diabetes have much poorer survival post-______ than those without.

MI

5

Insulin suppresses the production of _____________.

triglycerides; defects in insulin lead to hypertriglyceridemia

6

True or false: statins are contraindicated in those with diabetes.

Heck no! Every person 40-75 with diabetes should be receiving a statin; it lowers numerous kinds of mortality.

7

______ is made in excess in those with diabetes, leading to clots.

PAI-1 (plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1)

8

Why are some tissues preferentially affected by hyperglycemia?

Some tissues – like the retina, nerves, and pericytes of the retina – contain aldose reductase that initiates the polyol pathway by converting glucose to sorbitol; the downstream product accumulates on proteins and destroys cells. (There are a couple other pathways.)

9

What is it called when an amino group binds to a glucose?

Schiff base

10

Schiff bases transition to __________, which themselves transition to _____________ – an irreversible product.

Amadori product; advanced glycation end products

11

Why are advanced glycation end products deleterious?

Because they have a high affinity for amino groups on other collagen molecules and cross-link collagen; additionally, they bind to fat more easily, thus causing plaques to form

12

After ten years with diabetes, ______ percent of people will develop diabetic retinopathy.

90

13

Early intensive control of diabetic retinopathy leads to a "_________" effect.

legacy (in which people had better outcomes even years after the study interventions ended)

14

True or false: about two-thirds of people with diabetes will develop diabetic nephropathy.

False. Only one-third.

15

Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy – the most common form of diabetic neuropathy – initially presents with ___________ and then progresses to ____________.

hyperalgesia; absence of pain

16

Roughly 80% of hospitalizations and deaths from diabetes are due to ________________.

cardiovascular disease

17

Early intensive control of blood sugar in diabetics has been shown to _______________.

decrease future risk of cardiovascular events

18

Fibroblasts are stimulated to produce more ECM by excess ____________ activity.

protein kinase C

19

What is mononeuritis multiplex?

Vascular occlusion of the blood supply to one nerve – can improve with time

20

Diabetes is the number one cause of ______________.

blindness, renal failure, and non-traumatic foot amputations

21

Aldose reductase is a potential therapeutic target is the ___________ pathway.

polyol

22

Diabetic foot disease is caused by ______________.

impaired blood flow to the feet coupled with impaired sensation

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