Flashcards in Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes Deck (21):
What percent of the U.S. population has diabetes?
9.3% (roughly one-third are undiagnosed – an estimate based on the amount of people discovered to have diabetes when randomly screened)
How much glucose is made and absorbed by the body each day?
Liver: 100 - 200 gm/day
Intestines: 100 - 200 gm/day
There is about _____ grams of glucose in the blood.
The HbA1c range for pre-diabetes is _______.
5.7% - 6.4%
Why is less than 100 mg/dl for a fasting glucose the cutoff for pre-diabetes?
Because at levels above that, people are much more likely to develop diabetic retinopathy
In whom is diabetes screening indicated?
In all adults with BMIs greater than 25 (23 in Asians) and in all adults older than 45
In children, the screening guidelines dictate that ________________.
kids should be screened if they are overweight and have any two of the following:
- family history (in 1st or 2nd degree relative)
- signs of insulin resistance
- maternal history
In those diagnosed with T2DM, roughly _____ percent of beta cell function has been lost.
In healthy people, glucagon is supposed to _________ after eating. Those with T2DM have insufficient response.
The triad of diabetes symptoms are is _____________.
polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia
What is hypoglycemic unawareness?
The body learns to adapt to lower blood sugar, so symptoms of hypoglycemia occur at progressively lower levels.
How common is gestational diabetes?
Occurs in 4% of pregnant women
Current recommendations for those with pre-diabetes are ______________.
exercise, metformin, and yearly screenings for development of diabetes
All diagnostic criteria for diabetes must be repeated to confirm, with the exception of _________.
random blood glucose greater than 200
Maturity onset diabetes of youth is characterized by mutations in the _________ protein.
Which hormone leads to increased glycogenesis: insulin or glucagon?
What two hormones are the main defenses against hypoglycemia?
Epinephrine (stimulates glycogenolysis and increases insulin resistance) and glucagon (stimulates glycogenolysis and hepatic release of sugar)
Those with T2DM have markedly increased hepatic glucose ________.
What is the incretin effect?
Those without T2DM get more insulin secreted by eating something than injecting glucose
Activation of __________ accelerates ketogenesis.
carnitine acetyl transferase