Treatment of Diabetes – Insulin Flashcards Preview

Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Treatment of Diabetes – Insulin > Flashcards

Flashcards in Treatment of Diabetes – Insulin Deck (24):
1

How many units of insulin does the pancreas secrete normally?

30 units per day

2

Type 2 diabetics typically lose which phase of insulin secretion?

Phase 1

3

Which glucose channel is constitutively expressed in beta cells?

GLUT2

4

What percent of T2 diabetics are using insulin?

50 percent

5

What are the brand names of the three fast-acting insulins?

Humalog (lispro)
Novolog (aspart)
Apidra (glulisine)

6

What are the three long-acting insulins and their brand names?

Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
Degludec (Tresiba)

7

The ______________ have no peak.

long-acting insulins

8

What is MDI?

Multiple daily injections (also called basal-bolus or intensive insulin therapy)

9

In a non-diabetic, meals should raise blood glucose by _______________.

30 to 50

10

Detemir needs to be given __________ daily, while glargine needs to be given __________ daily.

twice; once

11

Insulin pumps secrete ______________.

rapid-acting insulin as a basal insulin

12

What stimulates second-phase insulin secretion?

Glucose that remains high after the initial rise

13

What concentrations are typically given in injectable insulin?

100 U/mL, 300 U/mL, or 500 U/mL

14

What are the peak times of fast-acting and intermediate-acting insulin?

Fast-acting: 1.5 hours
Intermediate-acting: 3-5 hours

15

How (chemically) does detemir last so long in the circulation?

It has an added fatty acid, so it binds to albumin.

16

Which insulin is dispensed as a cloudy solution?

Neutral protamine Hagedorn (think Hagedorn = Hazy)

17

What formula is used to estimate basal insulin needs per day?

0.2 U/kg/day (so a 70 kg person needs 14 U daily for basal levels)

18

What is the typical range for carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios?

8:1 to 20:1 (meaning an insulin-resistant person might need 1 unit of insulin for every 8 grams of carbohydrates, while an insulin-sensitive person might need 1 unit of insulin for every 20 grams of carbohydrates)

19

By how much does 1 unit of fast-acting insulin typically lower a person's blood glucose?

20 mg/dL to 50 mg/dL

20

What is the "dawn phenomenon"?

Growth hormone typically rises between 4 am and 8 am, thus inducing hyperglycemia; patients with T1DM usually need more insulin during this time.

21

_____________ channels are blocked in beta-cells to stimulate secretion of insulin.

ATP-sensitive potassium

22

What are some signs that a type-2 diabetic might need insulin?

- Random glucose greater than 300
- Fasting glucose greater than 250
- Weight loss
- HbA1c greater than 10%
- Hospital admission for DKA or hyperosmolar syndrome

23

What are lab goals for diabetics receiving insulin?

- A1c less than 7.5% in children and 7.0% in adults
- Fasting glucose 70 - 130
- Two hours post-meal less than 180

24

If a diabetic is admitted to the hospital, stop _______________.

all non-insulin glucose-lowering agents

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