Flashcards in Digestive System Overview Deck (21):
Two basic functions of the digestive tract are _________________________.
(1) breaking down food and (2) absorbing nutrients
Crossing from the lumen through all the layers of the GI tract, you pass through ____________________.
(1) the mucosal layer
(2) the epithelium, containing endocrine cells
(3) the lamina propria – an area characterized by loose capillaries, lymphocytes, and mesenchymal stroma
(4) muscularis mucosa, innervated by Meissner's plexus
(6) inner circular muscle, innervated by Auerbach's plexus
(7) outer longitudinal muscle, innervated by Auerbach's plexus
All mucosa have some ___________ cells.
Mucins are ___________________________.
- long molecules (usually about a million Daltons)
- heavily glycosylated (every third amino acid is a serine or threonine with a carbohydrate attached)
The lamina propria is ____________ to the basal lamina.
The muscularis mucosa is ___________ to the lamina propria.
True or false: the submucosa is looser than the lamina propria.
What is the name of the muscular layer deep to the submucosa?
Inner circular and outer longitudinal
All of the abdominal tissue is covered with _____________ epithelium.
Meissner's plexus is in the _____________. What does it do?
submucosa; it innervates the muscularis mucosa, stimulating contraction
Where/what is Auerbach's plexus?
It is a network of nerves in the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers.
Enteroendocrine cells reside in the ____________.
What hormones does Dr. Bendiak want us to know?
Between the villi of the small intestine, there are small __________ at the base of the valleys.
The _______________ is regular, like test tubes.
How do you distinguish between the small and large intestines (histologically)?
The large intestine has regular inlets that look like test tubes, while the small intestine has villi.
Where, in the gastric glands, are the goblet cells, parietal cells, and chief cells? What does each do?
Goblet cells: near the surface of the gland – where the gland meets the epithelium; secretes mucus
Parietal cells: in the gland, but close to the surface; secrets HCl
Chief cells: at the base of the gland; secretes pepsinogen
Enteroendocrine cells are at the ____________ of the gastric gland.
base (near the pepsinogen-secreting chief cells)
The muscularis externae comprise the ________________.
inner circular and outer longitudinal muscles
Which are further from the lumen, submucosal glands or accessory glands?