Micronutrients: Trace Elements Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micronutrients: Trace Elements Deck (29):
1

Eleven elements account for ______ percent of body weight.

99.7

2

The most critical period of brain development is _______________.

the first 1,000 days

3

The body contains about ______ grams of iron.

5

4

Where is most of the iron in the body?

In hemoglobin (50%)

5

Other than hemoglobin, what enzymes contain iron?

Oxygenases and cytochromes

6

Iron is better absorbed in the _________ state.

heme

7

What molecule in spinach leads to negative absorption of iron?

Phyate, a carbon ring with many phosphates that can chelate cations

8

When hepcidin is increased, ____________ is inhibited.

export of iron from iron-storing cells

9

What stimulates the release of hepcidin?

Inflammation; it serves to sequester iron in cells, thereby hiding it from bacteria

10

The most common micronutrient deficiency in the world (including the U.S.) is _____________.

iron deficiency

11

The neurologic effects of iron deficiency are _____________, even with correction.

irreversible

12

Zinc is important for _______________.

any kind of growth or differentiation: immune cells, wound healing, GI tract integrity, and skin renewal

13

Breastmilk concentrations of zinc do not correlate with __________.

maternal zinc levels

14

____________ is non-toxic, so it's ok that some people take lozenges of this when they're sick.

Zinc

15

Breastmilk levels of zinc are low are ________ months.

six

16

________ deficiency can make children not want to eat.

Zinc

17

Micronutrients are those that we need less than __________ of per day.

100 mg

18

How does vitamin C promote iron absorption?

It converts Fe3+ to Fe2+, which is the form in which iron is absorbed.

19

Deficiencies of iron in which two populations warrants investigation for unseen bleeding?

Men and post-menopausal women

20

Again, what lab value can help you differentiate between inflammatory and iron-deficient anemia?

High ferritin indicates inflammatory anemia, while low ferritin indicates iron-deficiency anemia.

21

List three cellular roles of zinc.

- Part of transcription factor in zinc-finger domains
- Part of metalloproteases
- Increases membrane stability

22

True or false: zinc, unlike iron, can be excreted in the GI tract.

True.

23

What category of enzymes require copper: ______________.

oxidases

24

Severe __________ deficiency can lead to hypothyroidism.

iodide

25

Why does milk decrease iron absorption?

Because calcium decreases iron absorption

26

Hepcidin acts by _____________.

inhibiting ferroportin, thereby causing iron to accumulate in cells

27

Inability to develop secondary sexual characteristics is a feature of ______________ deficiency.

zinc

28

Stunting is strongly associated with _____________ deficiency.

zinc

29

Currently, there is no reliable marker for ____________ deficiency.

zinc

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