Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathophysiology of the Esophagus Flashcards Preview

Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathophysiology of the Esophagus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathophysiology of the Esophagus Deck (20):
1

The medical term for swallowing is _____________.

deglutition

2

What happens in the oropharynx while swallowing?

- Elevation of the palate
- Closure of the epiglottis
- Elevation of the posterior tongue

3

How many times do we swallow per day?

600x

4

The oral phase of deglutition is __________, while the pharyngeal phase (UES relaxation) is _____________.

voluntary; involuntary

5

Transfer dysphagia can result from _______________.

neuromuscular (e.g., ALS, Parkinson's, MS, stroke, muscle injury) or obstructive causes

6

What are symptoms of oropharyngeal dysfunction?

- Aspiration pneumonitis
- Nasal regurgitation
- Airway obstruction (choking, cyanosis)

7

What is Zenker's diverticulum?

An outpouching of the oropharynx that leads to bacterial colonization

8

____________ is the most helpful diagnostic tool of oropharyngeal dysfunction. Though _____________ and ___________ can help.

History and physical (always); barium swallowing; neurologic exam

9

Achalasia results from failure of the _____________ to relax.

LES

10

True or false: most achalasia presents in childhood.

False. The most common age is 25 - 60.

11

The cardinal symptom of esophageal strictures/obstructive disorders is ______________.

dysphagia to solids earlier than liquids

12

How do you diagnosis eosinophilic esophagitis?

Dysphagia in the absence of other causes with eosinophilic infiltrate

13

What population has a higher incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis?

White males younger than 40 who have other atopic conditions

14

The best drug treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis is ______________.

topical steroids

15

Most patients with GERD have ______________ in their esophaguses.

nothing (i.e., most do not have pathologic findings)

16

The highest estimates for the yearly likelihood of Barrett's transitioning to cancer is __________.

0.5%

17

Describe the three types of achalasia.

I: no change in esophageal pressure
II: simultaneous change in entire esophagus
III: spastic, random pressure changes in esophagus

18

Calcium-channel blockers and sildenafil can treat type ______ achalasia.

III

19

The three Ds can treat eosinophilic esophagitis: ______________.

- diet (avoiding allergens)
- drugs (corticosteroids)
- dilation (surgical expansion of strictures caused by EoE)

20

Esophageal erosion can be prevented in ______ percent of patients with GERD if they take PPIs.

90

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