Flashcards in Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathophysiology of the Esophagus Deck (20):
The medical term for swallowing is _____________.
What happens in the oropharynx while swallowing?
- Elevation of the palate
- Closure of the epiglottis
- Elevation of the posterior tongue
How many times do we swallow per day?
The oral phase of deglutition is __________, while the pharyngeal phase (UES relaxation) is _____________.
Transfer dysphagia can result from _______________.
neuromuscular (e.g., ALS, Parkinson's, MS, stroke, muscle injury) or obstructive causes
What are symptoms of oropharyngeal dysfunction?
- Aspiration pneumonitis
- Nasal regurgitation
- Airway obstruction (choking, cyanosis)
What is Zenker's diverticulum?
An outpouching of the oropharynx that leads to bacterial colonization
____________ is the most helpful diagnostic tool of oropharyngeal dysfunction. Though _____________ and ___________ can help.
History and physical (always); barium swallowing; neurologic exam
Achalasia results from failure of the _____________ to relax.
True or false: most achalasia presents in childhood.
False. The most common age is 25 - 60.
The cardinal symptom of esophageal strictures/obstructive disorders is ______________.
dysphagia to solids earlier than liquids
How do you diagnosis eosinophilic esophagitis?
Dysphagia in the absence of other causes with eosinophilic infiltrate
What population has a higher incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis?
White males younger than 40 who have other atopic conditions
The best drug treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis is ______________.
Most patients with GERD have ______________ in their esophaguses.
nothing (i.e., most do not have pathologic findings)
The highest estimates for the yearly likelihood of Barrett's transitioning to cancer is __________.
Describe the three types of achalasia.
I: no change in esophageal pressure
II: simultaneous change in entire esophagus
III: spastic, random pressure changes in esophagus
Calcium-channel blockers and sildenafil can treat type ______ achalasia.
The three Ds can treat eosinophilic esophagitis: ______________.
- diet (avoiding allergens)
- drugs (corticosteroids)
- dilation (surgical expansion of strictures caused by EoE)