Flashcards in GI Tract and Systemic Immunity Deck (23):
An uncommitted T cell is given the nomenclature _____.
One activated T-helper cell becomes _________ cells in four days.
Which five main cells can Th0 cells become?
At the site of antigen, activated Th1 cells release ___________.
interferon-gamma (which attracts M1 macrophages) and IL-2 (which activates cytotoxic T cells)
Which macrophage subtype is aggressive?
The main helper T cell involved in psoriasis is _____.
It's thought that ulcerative colitis results from ______________.
an immune system response to commensal bacteria
Activated Th2, at the site of antigen, releases ___________.
IL-4 (attracting eosinophils and macrophages) and IL-13 (stimulating IgE production)
Three immune cell types are involved in asthma: _________________.
Th2, M2 macrophages, and eosinophils
True or false: Th17 is another regulatory T cell that helps reduce the lymph node response.
False. Th17 is a very strong inflammatory T cell.
A Th0 cell in the thymus that binds to peptide/MHC with high affinity ________. A Th0 cell in the gut that binds peptide/MHC in the presence of TGFbeta only turns into a _________. A Th0 cell in the gut that binds peptide/MHC in the presence of TGFbeta and IL-6 turns into a __________.
dies; iTreg; Th1, Th2, or Th17
Differentiate Treg and iTreg.
Treg: a Treg cell that arises in the thymus
iTreg: a Treg that is induced in the periphery
Normal gut tissue creates _________ that makes an environment favorable for Tregs.
The recurring theme in research on the causes of IBD is ___________.
leaking gut – allowing bacteria through
What does TTG do?
Tissue transglutaminase catalyzes the reaction that converts glutamine to glutamic acid – a deamidation reaction – in the gliadin peptide (position 6).
Describe the role of follicular helper T cells (Tfh).
They normally reside in the paracortex of the lymph node, and when they bind antigen they migrate to the follicles and active B cells to make immunoglobulin.
Tregs make two important anti-inflammatory cytokines: _______.
IL-10 and TGFbeta
CTLs kill cells but also secrete what signaling molecule?
Interferon-gamma (to attract macrophages to come eat the cells they've killed)
Most of the complementarity of the T cell receptor is in CDR______.
What determines the pathway of the Th0 cell?
The particular history of the dendritic cell that presented antigen
There is normally abundant ______ in the gut and ________ secreted by gut dendritic cells that promotes Treg develop in Peyer's patches.
TGFbeta and ______ in the gut leads to development of Th0 cells into Th1 and Th17.
IL-6 (released by damaged epithelium)