Flashcards in Endocrine Histology and Embryology Deck (36):
The _____________ have fenestrated endothelium.
The posterior pituitary hangs on the _____________ which is beneath the median eminence of the hypothalamus.
The anterior pituitary is also called the ___________.
The anterior pituitary is called the ____________.
What divides the anterior and posterior pituitaries?
The pars intermedia
The posterior pituitary is also called the ____________.
The infundibular stalk (also called pas tuberalis) is made of _______________.
axons, mostly, because this connects to the posterior pituitary
Oxytocin and ADH are made by _______________.
cell bodies in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
Which artery supplies the pituitary gland?
The superior hypophyseal artery
The hormones secreted by the hypothalmus onto the anterior pituitary must pass through ________________.
the hypophyseal portal system (after being made in the nuclei superior to the pituitary gland)
The posterior pituitary hormones travel through the ____________ to be secreted.
axons of the supraoptic and paraventricular cells
(These axons parallel the trabecular artery.)
Which hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary?
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Growth hormone (GH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Cutting from the outside to the inside of the adrenal gland, you pass through which layers?
Zona glomerulosa (stains darkly)
What two arteries supply the adrenal gland?
The long cortical artery dives deep (supplying the adrenal medulla) and the subcapsular plexus (supplying the capsular region)
The cortical region of the adrenal gland (reticularis and fasciculata) produce what kind of hormones?
Steroid (made from cholesterol)
What kind of hormones does the medullary region produce?
Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and enkephalins
The _______________ part of the adrenal medulla is innervated by the autonomic nervous system.
The subcapsular plexus is in the __________ layer.
The thyroid is histologically broken into _________________.
The thyroid follicles are surrounded by _______________.
calcitonin-secreting (clear) cells and blood vessels
Describe the layout of thyroid vasculature.
The thyroid has two arteries – the inferior and superior thyroid arteries – and two veins – the inferior and superior thyroid veins.
___________ enters the thyroid follicles and gets converted to __________.
Colloid is inside the _____________.
Where is the parathyroid?
They are on the posterior side of the thyroid.
Describe the embryology of the pituitary.
The anterior pituitary arises from Rathke's pouch, which is an outpouching of the oral ectoderm. The posterior pituitary forms from an outpouching of the floor of the diencephalon.
* Note: this embryology explains why the anterior pituitary requires an intermediate to secrete hormones into the blood, while the posterior pituitary remains a single unit.
The neural crest buds off to form the __________, which ultimately becomes the adrenal medulla.
Chromaffin cells form the _______________ of the adrenal gland.
The first-wave mesothelial cells form the ____________ of the adrenal gland.
The second-wave mesothelial cells form the ___________ of the adrenal gland.
glomerulosa and fasciculata
When, gestationally, do the thyroid and parathyroid develop?
The thyroid develops out of the ______________.
second pharyngeal pouch (which descends caudally)
The parathyroid develops from _________________.
the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches (the superior comes from the 4th, weirdly enough)
The calcitonin-secreting cells arise from the _____________ body.
ultimobranchial (beneath pouch 4)
The most prevalent cell type in the anterior pituitary is ______________.
somatotrophs (followed by lactotrophs and corticotrophs)
Cells in the anterior pituitary are either eosinophilic or basophilic. Which does which?
Basophilic: corticotrophs, thyrotrophs, and gonadotrophs
Eosinophilic: lactotrophs, somatotrophs