Diseases of the Lower GI: Pathology Flashcards Preview

Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Diseases of the Lower GI: Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diseases of the Lower GI: Pathology Deck (32):
1

What is the specific molecule in gluten that is involved in celiac?

Gliadin (a glycoprotein extract from gluten)

2

Loss of the villar surface is a result of ____________.

T-cell infiltration

3

There are two clinical presentations of celiac disease: ______________.

- classical: bulky diarrhea, flatulence, weight loss, anemia, growth failure in children

- atypical: infertility, arthritis, GI upset, dental enamel defects

4

The three findings that pathologists look for in diagnosing celiac are _______________.

(1) villous blunting, (2) increased epithelial lymphocytes, and (3) lymphoplasmacytosis of the lamina propria

5

True or false: those with severe symptoms almost always have intense villous blunting.

False. Histologic severity doesn't always correlate with symptom severity.

6

What is the big buzzword that pathologists use for describing celiac intestine?

"Scalloping"

7

What lymphoma are those with celiac at risk for?

EAT Lymphoma

Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma

8

The Gram-positive bacilli in _______________ get absorbed by intestinal macrophages. Why is this a bigger problem?

Whipple disease; because these organism-laden macrophages block lymphatic drainage

9

The villi in those with Whipple disease will be ____________.

distended with macrophages

10

The incubation period for giardia is ___________.

7-14 days

11

Giardia most often colonizes the ____________.

duodenum

12

What bacteria is often the cause of enterocolitis from raw milk?

Campylobacter

13

True or false: all E. coli causes bloody diarrhea.

False.

14

Pseudomembranous colitis is often referred to as ______________, but not all PC is caused by that organism.

Clostridium difficile colitis

15

The most common antibiotic causes of pseudomembranous colitis are ___________.

3rd-generation cephalosporins and clindamycin

16

The most common viral cause of childhood diarrhea is __________. What is mechanism?

rotavirus; the virus enters and destroys mature enterocytes leading to loss of absorptive function

17

Which organism is the most common cause of amoebic dysentery?

Entamoeba histolytica

18

What are "watershed areas"?

Areas where one blood supply ends and another begins – vulnerable to ischemic injury

19

True or false: those with microscopic colitis usually have weight loss.

False.

20

In what bowel disorder does intestinal epithelium slough off?

Collagenous microscopic colitis; the thickened collagen layer is brittle and forms a poor base for the epithelial tissue.

21

Helper-T 1 is common in ________, while helper-T 2 is more common in ____________.

CD; UC

22

____________ presents with superficial ulcers that are bigger.

Ulcerative colitis

23

UC is associated with what liver pathology?

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

24

The 25-year risk of adenocarcinoma in those with IBD is ________.

10%

25

Abnormally shaped crypts (i.e., not round) are characteristic of __________.

chronic IBD (I think Crohn's)

26

The "bear-claw" microscopic sign is a feature of ___________.

Crohn's

27

What kind of bacteria is the bacteria that produces typhoid?

Gram-negative rod (Salmonella typhimurium)

28

_______________ produces "flask-shaped" ulcers in the intestinal mucosa.

Amoebic dysentery

29

What is Ascaris lumbricoides?

A roundworm that infects the colon

30

What evidence suggests that bacteria play a role in IBD?

Antibiotics can ameliorate the symptoms in some with IBD

31

Crypt distortion is a feature of ______________.

active colitis

32

The distinction between diverticula and true diverticula is ________________.

that true diverticula have muscularis mucosa

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