Flashcards in Diseases of the Lower GI: Pathology Deck (32):
What is the specific molecule in gluten that is involved in celiac?
Gliadin (a glycoprotein extract from gluten)
Loss of the villar surface is a result of ____________.
There are two clinical presentations of celiac disease: ______________.
- classical: bulky diarrhea, flatulence, weight loss, anemia, growth failure in children
- atypical: infertility, arthritis, GI upset, dental enamel defects
The three findings that pathologists look for in diagnosing celiac are _______________.
(1) villous blunting, (2) increased epithelial lymphocytes, and (3) lymphoplasmacytosis of the lamina propria
True or false: those with severe symptoms almost always have intense villous blunting.
False. Histologic severity doesn't always correlate with symptom severity.
What is the big buzzword that pathologists use for describing celiac intestine?
What lymphoma are those with celiac at risk for?
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma
The Gram-positive bacilli in _______________ get absorbed by intestinal macrophages. Why is this a bigger problem?
Whipple disease; because these organism-laden macrophages block lymphatic drainage
The villi in those with Whipple disease will be ____________.
distended with macrophages
The incubation period for giardia is ___________.
Giardia most often colonizes the ____________.
What bacteria is often the cause of enterocolitis from raw milk?
True or false: all E. coli causes bloody diarrhea.
Pseudomembranous colitis is often referred to as ______________, but not all PC is caused by that organism.
Clostridium difficile colitis
The most common antibiotic causes of pseudomembranous colitis are ___________.
3rd-generation cephalosporins and clindamycin
The most common viral cause of childhood diarrhea is __________. What is mechanism?
rotavirus; the virus enters and destroys mature enterocytes leading to loss of absorptive function
Which organism is the most common cause of amoebic dysentery?
What are "watershed areas"?
Areas where one blood supply ends and another begins – vulnerable to ischemic injury
True or false: those with microscopic colitis usually have weight loss.
In what bowel disorder does intestinal epithelium slough off?
Collagenous microscopic colitis; the thickened collagen layer is brittle and forms a poor base for the epithelial tissue.
Helper-T 1 is common in ________, while helper-T 2 is more common in ____________.
____________ presents with superficial ulcers that are bigger.
UC is associated with what liver pathology?
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
The 25-year risk of adenocarcinoma in those with IBD is ________.
Abnormally shaped crypts (i.e., not round) are characteristic of __________.
chronic IBD (I think Crohn's)
The "bear-claw" microscopic sign is a feature of ___________.
What kind of bacteria is the bacteria that produces typhoid?
Gram-negative rod (Salmonella typhimurium)
_______________ produces "flask-shaped" ulcers in the intestinal mucosa.
What is Ascaris lumbricoides?
A roundworm that infects the colon
What evidence suggests that bacteria play a role in IBD?
Antibiotics can ameliorate the symptoms in some with IBD
Crypt distortion is a feature of ______________.