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Flashcards in Endocrine - Diabetes Management Deck (21):

Target blood pressure in diabetics?

Target LDL?

Under 130/80



Risk factors for diabetes?

1 BMI >25
2 metabolic syndrome (hypertension, low HDL, triglycerides >250)
3 relatives with diabetes
4 hx of gestational diabetes
5 ethnic minorities


Screening for high-risk adults? For high-risk children?

Every three years after age 45; every two years after age 10


Most specific test for diabetes?

Fasting plasma glucose.

Hemoglobin A1c is not a recommended screening test because of lack of standardization between laboratories


Glucose levels with increased risk of microvascular complications versus macrovascular complications

Microvascular complications (Retinopathy, nephropathy) >126

Macrovascular complications (cardiovascular/cerebrovascular disease) > 110


Fasting glucose, random glucose, oral glucose tolerance test levels in diabetics?

Hbg A1c?

>126, >200, >200

Over 6.5


Prediabetes levels?

Fasting glucose 100 – 126
Oral glucose tolerance test 140 – 200


Pros and cons of intensive glycemic control?

Pro: hemoglobin A-1 C <7% leads to fewer microvascular complications

Con: intensive therapy leads to hypoglycemia (not appropriate for elderly patients or patients with other comorbid conditions)


Role of ACE inhibitors and ARBs in diabetics?

Preventing progression of proteinuria and kidney disease


Sulfonylureas : Mechanism of action? Use in which patients? Avoid in which patients?

Works at pancreatic beta cells to increase insulin production. Best for young patients with glucose <300. Avoid in patients with renal failure because stroke will accumulate.


Metformin: Mechanism of action? Use in which patients? Avoid in which patients?

Decreases gluconeogenesis and decreases insulin resistance. Decreases appetite so use in obese patients. Avoid in patients with renal insufficiency because it may cause lactic acidosis.


Alpha-glucosidase: mechanism of action? Adverse effects?

Inhibits breakdown of disaccharides in GI tract. Hepatotoxicity

Can be use in pts with renal failure


Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone: Mechanism of action? Adverse effects?

Increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake and decrease insulin resistance

Hepatotoxicity, fluid overload. (contraindicated in CHF)


Repaglinide : Mechanism of action? Avoid in patients with?

Non-sulfonylurea that increases insulin production. Avoid in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency


Initial treatment for type two diabetes?

Exercise and weight loss – decreasing adipose tissue helps decrease insulin resistance


Incretins mimetics and DPP4 inhibitors (exenatide, sitagliptin) : Mechanism of action? Avoid in patients with?

Increases insulin-stimulating GI hormones (GLP-1) vs inhibits incretin degradation. Also decrease gastric motility and help in weight loss

Pancreatitis, medullary thyroid cancer


Pranlintide: Mechanism of action? Avoid in patients with?

Amylin analog – decreases gastric emptying, decreases glucagon, decreases appetite


Medications for diabetes patients?

#Pneumococcal vaccine
#Statin if LDL over 100
#ACE/ARB if microalbumin urea
#Yearly eye exam for retinopathy
#Yearly foot exam for neuropathy


Treatment for diabetic gastroparesis?

Metoclopramide and erythromycin


Neuropathic pain controlled by?

Pregabalin, gabapentin, or tricyclics


SGLT-2 inhibitors - names? Mechanism of action?


Increase glucose excretion by kidney

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