Flashcards in Rheum - Osteoporosis Deck (13):
Biphosphonates – names? mechanism of action? Adverse effect?
Alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate
Synthetic carbon phosphate compounds that bind to pyrophosphate and inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption
Severe esophagitis (caution in patients with gastric reflux)
T score between -1.0 and -2.5 standard deviations below the mean of young healthy adults
T score More than -2.5 standard deviations below the mean of young healthy adults
Risk factors for osteoporosis?
1. Low peak skeletal density
2. Increasing age
3. Loss of steroid hormone production (menopause or hypogonadism)
5. Nutritional deficiencies
Most common cause of secondary osteoporosis?
Glucocorticoid excess (from treatment for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis)
Endocrine Pathologies that will lead to osteoporosis?
1. Gonadal deficiency (female athletes or anorexics)
Medications that accelerate bone loss?
Cyclosporine, antiepileptics, heparin, GnRH inhibitors
When are women recommended to undergo bone mineral density (BMD) testing?
1. All Women >65 years
2. women <65 years who have sustained a fracture
DEXA scan: Z score versus T score
Compares bone density to patient of the same age versus young healthy adult
Vitamin D or phosphate deficiency that results in an accumulation of unmineralized osteoid
Disorganize bone remodeling with high alk phos
Treatment of osteoporosis?
1. 1000 to 1200 mg of calcium daily
2. 400 to 800 IU of vitamin D
4. estrogen (depending)
5. Weight-bearing activity
6. Raloxifene - SERM that decreases breast cancer risk and LDL
7. Teriparatide - parathyroid analogue that stimulates bone matrix formation
Effect of biphosphonates on incidence of fractures?
Decreases incidence of hip fractures by 30 to 50%