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Flashcards in HyperCa Deck (16):
0

Causes of acute hypercalcemia with a high PTH?

Primary hyperparathyroidism, MEN

1

Acute hypercalcemia with low PTH?

Malignancy – PTHrP

2

Chronic hypercalcemia with low PTH?

Granulomatous disease, immobilization

genetic: familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

OD: milk-alkali syndrome, vitamin D intoxication

Drugs: thiazides, Li

endo: adrenal insufficiency hyperthyroidism

3

Patient with hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, elevated PTH? Treatment?

Primary hyperparathyroidism. Medical therapy or surgery

4

Lithium presents like?

Primary hyperparathyroidism

5

Treatment of malignancy related hypercalcemia?

1. Tumor treatment
2. Bisphosphonates
3. Calcitonin

6

Low PTH levels and elevated 1, 25 vitamin D levels? Treatment?

Sarcoidosis. Avoid sunlight, decrease vitamin D and calcium intake, glucocorticoids

7

Mechanism of hypercalcemia in sarcoidosis?

Excess 1, 25 vitamin D synthesized in macrophages and lymphocytes

8

Low PTH levels, elevated 25 vitamin D, normal 1, 25 vitamin D. Tx?

Excessive vitamin D intake. Glucocorticoids

9

Acute treatments of hypercalcemia?

1. Hydration plus diuretic
2. Calcitonin
3. Dialysis

10

Subacute treatment for hypercalcemia?

Bisphosphonate

11

Long-term treatment for hypercalcemia?

Glucocorticoids

12

Symptoms of Hypercalcemia <12

Polyurea and dehydration

13

Symptoms of hypercalcemia >13

1. Neuro: (lethargy, stupor, coma)
2. G.I. (anorexia, nausea, constipation, ulcers)
3. Kidney (polyurea, nephrolithiasis, prerenal azotemia)
4. Musculoskeletal (arthralgias, myalgias, weakness)

14

Indications for parathyroid surgery?

Hypercalcemia >15
Age <-2.5

30

Patient presenting with acute onset of symptomatic hypocalcemia likely has?

Malignancy (multiple myeloma, Lymphoma leukemia, or breast, lung or kidney cancer)

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