MKSAP - Nephrology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MKSAP - Nephrology Deck (19):
1

Orthostatic proteinuria?

Proteinuria only when upright (children)

2

Persistent hematuria? Interpretation of urine? Tests

3+ RBCs in urine on 2 more samples

If casts/dysmorphic RBCs - glomerular origin
If normal RBCs - from lower in the urinary tract

Kidney US and cytoscopy

3

Risk factors for genitourinary malignancy?

1. Male
2. age>50
3. tobacco use
4. cyclophosphamide/benzene/radiation exposure

4

Pt with azotemia - must do this before dialyzing?

Fluid resuscitation (and see if pt improves)

5

Drugs to help with hepatorenal syndrome?

Octreotide and midodrine

6

Drug to treat malignancy-related hyperuricemia?

Rasburicase

7

In acute interstital nephritis - expect to see what UA findings?

pyuria, WBC casts, eosinophils on UA

8

On ACE/ARB - acceptable increase in Cr?

30%

9

Gap-metabolic acidosis - next steps?

1) Winters
2) Delta-Delta (AG - 12 + bicarb)

10

Ammonium excretion in types of metabolic acidosis?

extra-renal - high acid secretion and high urine ammonium

renal acidosis - low acid secretion and low urine ammonium

11

Urine anion gap? Normal range? Interpretation?

Urine Na + Urine K - Urine Cl
Normally 30-50
Neg UAG - non-renal (NH4 excreted)
Positive UAG - renal cause

12

HyperK in pt with CKD - how to tell if its due to the CKD or other factor?

If GFR>15, due something else

13

Pt with CKD - when is a thiazide not effective?

When GFR<30

14

Way to estimate osmolarity?

2*Na

15

hyperosmolar Pt without hyperglycemia who presents with polyuria and polydipsia with dilute urine? Test and interpretation?

Diabetes Insipidus

Give AVP - if urine concentrates, then central, if not nephrogenic

16

Cinacalet?

Binds to parathyroid Ca-sensing receptor decreasing PTH release

17

Pt with hyperCa and sarcoidosis - tx for hyperCa (and mech)?

Steroids (Ca from macrophages, steroids deactivate macrophages)

18

Hypophosphatemia seen in what types of pt? Precipitated by? Symptoms?

Alcoholics, glucose administration (pushes phosphate into cells)

Confusion, rhabdomyolysis, hemolytic anemia, severe muscle weakness

19

Indications for dialysis?

AEIOU
1. Acidosis
2. Electrolyte abnormalities-hyperkalemia
3. Ingestion of substances like barbiturates, salicylates, lithium, methanol, etc
4. Overload fluid (unresponsive to diuretics)
5. Uremia symptoms (pericarditis, encephalopathy)

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