Flashcards in Onc - Solid Tumors Deck (23):
Breast cancer – best initial test? Most accurate test?
FNA biopsy; open biopsy
When to use an ultrasound for breast masses?
#Varies in size or pain with menstruation
When to use a PET scan?
Determine content of the lymph nodes that are not easily accessible to biopsy
Importance of the negative sentinel node?
Eliminates the need for axillary lymph node dissection
ER or PR positive breast cancer patients should receive?
Tamoxifen, raloxifene, anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane)
Adverse effects of tamoxifen?
Adverse effects of aromatase inhibitors?
Endometrial cancer and clots
Went to adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer?
#Lesions larger than 1 cm
#Positive axillary lymph nodes
Patient with suspected prostate cancer – best initial test? Most accurate test?
Biopsy is best initial and most accurate
Erectile dysfunction is more common after surgery or radiation?
Gleason grading is a measure of?
Hormonal medications for prostate cancer?
Management that is NOT beneficial in prostate cancer?
#Hormonal drugs to prevent recurrences
#Screening imaging tests
Age at which PSA is never done?
Elevated PSA and palpable mass – next step?
Transrectal ultrasound –
#if mass, biopsy
#If no mass, multiple blind biopsies
In the lung cancer patients – surgery is not possible if,
#Heart, Carina, aorta or vena cava involved
#Small cell cancer
Typical presentation of ovarian cancer? Best initial test? Most accurate test?
Woman over 50 who presents with increasing abdominal girth but losing weight
Ultrasound or CT scan
Only cancer in which removing large amounts of locally metastatic disease has a benefit? Then treat with?
Ovarian cancer; chemotherapy
Patient presents with painless lump in the scrotum that does not transluminate – diagnostic testing?
Serum markers in testicular cancer?
#Alpha-fetoprotein in nonseminomatous tumors
#HCG in all
Testicular cancer metastasizes through? Into?
Lymphatic Channels in the retroperitoneum
Management of testicular cancer?
Orchiectomy followed by:
#Radiation if local disease
#Chemotherapy for widespread disease (one of the malignancies where metastasis can be cured with chemotherapy)
Management of cervical cancer?
Perform Pap smear when? Repeat how often? Until? Interval if you get Pap and HPV testing?
Age 21; every three years until age 65
Five-year interval with both