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Flashcards in ID 1 Deck (50):
1

Flagellum composition

proteins

2

pilus/fimbriae composition

glycoprotein

3

Which type of bacteria form spores?

Only gram positives.

4

spore structure

1) keratin-like coat
2) *dipicolinic acid
3) peptidoglycan, DNA

5

B anthraces capsule

Unique in containing poly-D glutamate

6

Glycocalyx composition?

Loose network of polysaccharides.

7

glycocalyx function

Mediates adherence to surfaces, especially foreign surfaces (eg, indwelling catheters)

8

Which types of bacteria contain an outer membrane?

Gram negative only

9

porin function?

transport across outer membrane

10

Outer membrane composition?

Outer leaflet: contains endotoxin (LPS/LOS)
Embedded proteins: porins and other outer membrane proteins (OMPs)
*most OMPs are antigenic
Inner leaflet: phospholipids

11

What bacteria have a periplasm?

gram-negatives

12

What is the periplasm?

Space between cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane (peptidoglycan in middle)

13

caveat about periplasm

Accumulates components exiting gram negative cells, including hydrolytic enzymes (eg, beta-lactamases)

14

cell wall composition

peptidoglycan sugar backbone with peptide side chains cross-linked by transpeptidase.

15

Where are penicillin binding proteins?

cytoplasmic membrane

16

bacillus structure

gram positive rod

17

RNA sense in viruses concept

/positive sense = viral RNA sequence can be directly translated into viral proteins. Viral RNA can be considered mRNA. ***Thus, these viruses do not need an RNA polymerase packaged into the virion. They hook up to ribosomes, and the reading frame is translated. The ribosome makes a polymerase for them. /negative sense = complementary to viral mRNA, thus positive-sense RNA must be produced by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase prior to translation. These viruses have polymerases in their capsules for this purpose.

18

Memorize gram positive structure vs. gram negative

FA 108

19

bacillus structure

gram positive rod

20

gardnerella structure

gram positive rod

21

lactobacillus structure

gram positive rod

22

all mycobacteria are..

gram positive rod

23

propionibacterium are

gram positive rod

24

campylobacter

gram negative rod

25

enterobacter

gram negative rod

26

helicobacter

gram negative rod

27

klebsiella

gram negative rod

28

proteus

gram negative rod

29

pseudomonas

gram negative rod

30

salmonella

gram negative rod

31

serratia

gram negative rod

32

shigella

gram negative rod

33

vibrio

gram negative rod

34

yersinia structure

gram negative rod

35

bordetella

gram negative rod

36

burkholderia

gram negative rod

37

what system does burkholderia affect?

respiratory pathogen

38

legionella

gram negative rod

39

bartonella

gram negative rod

40

brucella

gram negative rod

41

francisella

gram negative rod

42

pasteurella

gram negative rod

43

pleomorphic bacteria

1) chlamydiae
2) rickettsiae

44

chlamydia stain?

giemsa

45

borrelia stain

giemsa

46

bacteria without cell walls

1) mycoplasma
2) ureaplasma

47

Bacteria you can't gram stain? why?

mycoplasma or ureaplasma since cell walls contain sterols rather than peptidoglycan, which don't stain

48

what do gram positives retain with staining?

crystal violet

49

bugs that don't stain well...

These Microbes May Lack Real Color
Treponema, leptospira
Mycobacteria
Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma
Legionella
Rickettsia
Chlamydia
Bartonella
Ehrlichia
Anaplasma

50

Why can't you stain spirochetes?

too thin