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Flashcards in Neuro II Deck (59):
1

acetylcholine location of synthesis

Basal nucleus of Meynert

2

acetylcholine and neuro conditions

Decreased in AD and HD, Increased in PD

3

Dopamine location of synthesis

1) ventral tegmentum
2) SNpc (substantia nigra pars compacta)

4

GABA location of synthesis

Nucleus Accumbens

5

Norepinephrine location of synthesis

Locus ceruleus

6

Serotonin location of synthesis

Raphe nucleus

7

Serotonin altered in...

1) Down in anxiety
2) Down in depression
3) Increased in PD

8

What forms the BBB?

1) tight junctions between nonfenestrated capillary endothelial cells.
2) basement membrane
3) astrocyte foot processes

9

glucose transport through BBB

Carrier-mediated transport

10

amino acid transport through BBB

carrier-mediated transport

11

How do you determine passage through BBB?

If a substance is non polar/lipid solute it will cross rapidly via diffusion.

12

Neurohypophysis structure and function

Fenestrated capillaries and no BBB, which permits neurosecretory products to enter circulation.

13

OVLT significance

Organum vasculosum of the lamina terminals. Specialized region of brain with no BBB and fenestrated capillaries used for osmotic sensing. Senses change in osmolarity

14

Area postrema signficance

Specialized region of brain with no BBB and fenestrated capillaries that detects noxious stimuli and induces vomiting.

15

vasogenic edema

Destruction of endothelial cell tight junctions due to infarction and/or neoplasm and leading to edema.

16

Hypothalamus regulates

1) thirst and water balance
2) hunger
3) ANS regulation
4) temperature regulation
5) sexual urges

17

area postrema location

medulla

18

ADH from...

supraoptic nucleus

19

oxytocin from...

paraventricular nucleus

20

Common cause of destruction to ventromedial area...

craniopharyngioma

21

anterior hypothalamus innervation

parasympathetic (cooling is a PS function)

22

posterior hypothalamus innervation

sympathetic (heating is a sympathetic function)

23

suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates...

circadian rhythm

24

Function of circadian rhythm?

Controls nocturnal release of ACTH, prolactin, melatonin, NE.

25

Melatonin pathway

SCN --> NE release --> NE acts on the pineal gland to secrete melatonin

26

When do extra ocular movements occur in sleep? why?

1) During REM sleep.
2) Due to activity of PPRF (parmesan pontine reticular formation/conjugate gaze center)

27

REM sleep characteristics

1) Occurs every 90 minutes
2) Duration increases through the night.
3) ACh increased in REM.

28

Causes of decreased REM and delta wave sleep...

1) alcohol
2) benzos
3) barbiturates
4) NE

29

Treatment for sleepwalking?

benzos

30

Sleep stages?

FA 457

31

Stage N1 description

light sleep

32

Stage N2 description

deeper sleep

33

Stage N3 description

Deepest non-REM sleep (slow-wave sleep)

34

When does bruxism occur?

N2

35

REM sleep description

1) Loss of motor tone
2) increased brain O2 use
3) increased variable pulse and BP

36

REM sleep function?

thought to be memory processing

37

when do sleepwalking/night terrors/enuresis occur?

N3

38

When do dreaming and penile/clitoral tumescence occur?

REM

39

beta wave characteristics

Highest frequency, lowest amplitude.

40

delta wave characteristics

lowest frequency, highest amplitude

41

Thalamus gross function

Major relay for all ascending sensory information except olfaction.

42

Ventral postero-lateral thalamic nucleus: input

Spinothalamic and dorsal columns/medial lemniscus

43

Ventral postero-lateral thalamic nucleus: senses

Pain, temperature, pressure, touch, vibration, proprioception

44

Ventral postero-lateral thalamic nucleus: destination

Primary somatosensory cortex

45

Ventral postero-medial nucleus (VPM): Input

Trigeminal and gustatory pathway

46

Ventral postero-medial nucleus (VPM): senses

Face sensation (Makeup goes on the face) + taste

47

Ventral postero-medial nucleus (VPM): destination

Primary somatosensory cortex

48

Lateral geniculate nucleus: input

CN II

49

Lateral geniculate nucleus: senses

Vision

50

Lateral geniculate nucleus: destination

Calcarine sulcus

51

Medial geniculate nucleus: input

Superior olive and inferior colliculus of tectum

52

Medial geniculate nucleus: senses

Hearing

53

Medial geniculate nucleus: destination

Auditory cortex of temporal lobe

54

Ventral lateral nucleus: input

Basal ganglia, cerebellum

55

Ventral lateral nucleus: senses

motor

56

Ventral lateral nucleus: destination

motor cortex

57

neurotransmitter functions in sleep

o Coded character: Sandman on back wall/SANDman Serotonin, Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine. Hawaiian dancers falling into bottom bunk on left/serotonin helps to initiate sleep. Rembert Brown on bottom bunk with a huge boner banging a huge choline/acetylcholine (Ach) is higher during REM sleep + is associated with erections in men. Remy on top bnak cradling a small narwhal/Norepinephrine is lower during REM sleep; the ratio of ACh and NE is the biochemical trigger for REM sleep. Cheech and chong waking and baking on top bunk on left/Dopamine produces arousal and wakefulness. Dopamine levels rise with waking.

58

sleep waves

o Big triangle special K box on right wall/K-complex = high-amplitude single spike followed by a trough. Spindle with extremely fast and compressed cords/sleep spindle = high-frequency burst about 2/3s in. huge amp next to rembert/REM sleep = transient large-amplitude potentials in occipital areas. Kevo sitting on a small amp + super spiky hair/beta is highest frequency, lowest amplitude. Delta ranger on huge amp across from kevo + shaved head/delta is lowest frequency, highest amplitude.

59

breakdown of sleep stages

N1- 5%
N2 - 45%
N3 - 25%
REM - 25%