Flashcards in Neuro II Deck (59):
acetylcholine location of synthesis
Basal nucleus of Meynert
acetylcholine and neuro conditions
Decreased in AD and HD, Increased in PD
Dopamine location of synthesis
1) ventral tegmentum
2) SNpc (substantia nigra pars compacta)
GABA location of synthesis
Norepinephrine location of synthesis
Serotonin location of synthesis
Serotonin altered in...
1) Down in anxiety
2) Down in depression
3) Increased in PD
What forms the BBB?
1) tight junctions between nonfenestrated capillary endothelial cells.
2) basement membrane
3) astrocyte foot processes
glucose transport through BBB
amino acid transport through BBB
How do you determine passage through BBB?
If a substance is non polar/lipid solute it will cross rapidly via diffusion.
Neurohypophysis structure and function
Fenestrated capillaries and no BBB, which permits neurosecretory products to enter circulation.
Organum vasculosum of the lamina terminals. Specialized region of brain with no BBB and fenestrated capillaries used for osmotic sensing. Senses change in osmolarity
Area postrema signficance
Specialized region of brain with no BBB and fenestrated capillaries that detects noxious stimuli and induces vomiting.
Destruction of endothelial cell tight junctions due to infarction and/or neoplasm and leading to edema.
1) thirst and water balance
3) ANS regulation
4) temperature regulation
5) sexual urges
area postrema location
Common cause of destruction to ventromedial area...
anterior hypothalamus innervation
parasympathetic (cooling is a PS function)
posterior hypothalamus innervation
sympathetic (heating is a sympathetic function)
suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates...
Function of circadian rhythm?
Controls nocturnal release of ACTH, prolactin, melatonin, NE.
SCN --> NE release --> NE acts on the pineal gland to secrete melatonin
When do extra ocular movements occur in sleep? why?
1) During REM sleep.
2) Due to activity of PPRF (parmesan pontine reticular formation/conjugate gaze center)
REM sleep characteristics
1) Occurs every 90 minutes
2) Duration increases through the night.
3) ACh increased in REM.
Causes of decreased REM and delta wave sleep...
Treatment for sleepwalking?
Stage N1 description
Stage N2 description
Stage N3 description
Deepest non-REM sleep (slow-wave sleep)
When does bruxism occur?
REM sleep description
1) Loss of motor tone
2) increased brain O2 use
3) increased variable pulse and BP
REM sleep function?
thought to be memory processing
when do sleepwalking/night terrors/enuresis occur?
When do dreaming and penile/clitoral tumescence occur?
beta wave characteristics
Highest frequency, lowest amplitude.
delta wave characteristics
lowest frequency, highest amplitude
Thalamus gross function
Major relay for all ascending sensory information except olfaction.
Ventral postero-lateral thalamic nucleus: input
Spinothalamic and dorsal columns/medial lemniscus
Ventral postero-lateral thalamic nucleus: senses
Pain, temperature, pressure, touch, vibration, proprioception
Ventral postero-lateral thalamic nucleus: destination
Primary somatosensory cortex
Ventral postero-medial nucleus (VPM): Input
Trigeminal and gustatory pathway
Ventral postero-medial nucleus (VPM): senses
Face sensation (Makeup goes on the face) + taste
Ventral postero-medial nucleus (VPM): destination
Primary somatosensory cortex
Lateral geniculate nucleus: input
Lateral geniculate nucleus: senses
Lateral geniculate nucleus: destination
Medial geniculate nucleus: input
Superior olive and inferior colliculus of tectum
Medial geniculate nucleus: senses
Medial geniculate nucleus: destination
Auditory cortex of temporal lobe
Ventral lateral nucleus: input
Basal ganglia, cerebellum
Ventral lateral nucleus: senses
Ventral lateral nucleus: destination
neurotransmitter functions in sleep
o Coded character: Sandman on back wall/SANDman Serotonin, Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine. Hawaiian dancers falling into bottom bunk on left/serotonin helps to initiate sleep. Rembert Brown on bottom bunk with a huge boner banging a huge choline/acetylcholine (Ach) is higher during REM sleep + is associated with erections in men. Remy on top bnak cradling a small narwhal/Norepinephrine is lower during REM sleep; the ratio of ACh and NE is the biochemical trigger for REM sleep. Cheech and chong waking and baking on top bunk on left/Dopamine produces arousal and wakefulness. Dopamine levels rise with waking.
o Big triangle special K box on right wall/K-complex = high-amplitude single spike followed by a trough. Spindle with extremely fast and compressed cords/sleep spindle = high-frequency burst about 2/3s in. huge amp next to rembert/REM sleep = transient large-amplitude potentials in occipital areas. Kevo sitting on a small amp + super spiky hair/beta is highest frequency, lowest amplitude. Delta ranger on huge amp across from kevo + shaved head/delta is lowest frequency, highest amplitude.