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Flashcards in Neuro III Deck (53):
1

limbic system functions

Famous 5 F's
Feeding
Fleeing
Fighting
Feeling (emotion)
Fucking
*long-term memory + olfaction + behavior modulation + ANS function.

2

Structures of limbic system...

hippocampus + amygdala + fornix + mammillary bodies + cingulate gyrus

3

mesocortical symptoms

1) decreased activity leads to negative symptoms (flat affect, limited speech).

4

antipsychotic drugs and mesocortical pathway

Limited affect

5

Mesolimbic pathway symptoms...

Increased activity leads to positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations)

6

Primary target of antipsychotic drugs?

Mesolimbic pathway

7

nigrostriatal pathway symptoms

Decreased activity leads to extrapyramidal symptoms (dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia)

8

Major dopaminergic pathway in brain?

Nigrostriatal.

9

tuberoinfundibular pathway

Decreased activity leads to increased prolactin leading to decreased libido/sex dysfunction/galactorrhea/gynecomastia.

10

Input to cerebellum

1) contralateral cortex via middle cerebellar peduncle.
2) Ipsilateral proprioceptive information via inferior cerebellar peduncle from spinal cord.

11

Cerebellar output

1) Contralateral cortex to modulate movement.
2) Deep nuclei

12

Lateral --> medial cerebellar nuclei

Don't Eat Greasy Foods
Dentate, emboliform, globose, fastigial

13

Output nerves of cerebellum involved in modulation of movement...

Purkinje cells --> deep nuclei of cerebellum --> contralateral cortex via superior cerebellar peduncle.

14

Affect of lateral lesion to cerebellum?

Impaired voluntary movement of extremities.

15

How do you tell side of cerebellar lesion?

Propensity to fall toward injured (ipsilateral) side.

16

Medial structures of cerebellum

Vermal cortex, fastigial nuclei.

17

What does damage to medial cerebellar structures cause?

1) truncal ataxia + nystagmus + head tilting.
2) generally result in bilateral motor deficits affecting axial and proximal limb musculature.

18

What does damage to flocculonodular lobe cause?

1) truncal ataxia + nystagmus + head tilting.
2) generally result in bilateral motor deficits affecting axial and proximal limb musculature.

19

bruxism

excessive teeth grinding and jaw clenching

20

Basal ganglia functions

1) voluntary movement
2) postural adjustments

21

How does basal ganglia modulate movement?

negative feedback to cortex

22

striatum components

putamen + caudate

23

putamen functions

motor

24

caudate functiosns

cognitive

25

Lentiform components

putamen + globus pallidus

26

Direct pathway receptor

D1 (d1rect pathway)

27

Indirect pathway receptor

D2

28

direct vs. indirect pathway function in basal ganglia

Direct is stimulatory.
Indirect inhibitory.

29

Excitatory/direct pathway

Cortical inputs stimulate the striatum, stimulating the release of GABA, which inhibits GABA release from the GPi, disinhibiting the thalamus via the GPi (increasing motion).

30

Inhibitory pathway

Cortical inputs stimulate the striatum, releasing GABA that disinhibits STN via GPe inhibition, and STN stimulates GPi to inhibit the thalamus (decreasing motion)

31

Dopamine affects

Binds to D1 --> stimulating excitatory pathways.
**Binding to D2 inhibits inhibitory pathway, leading to increased motion.

32

Athetosis due to lesion in...

basal ganglia

33

Chorea due to lesion in...

basal ganglia

34

Area commonly damaged in HD...

basal ganglia

35

What is dystonia?

Sustained, involuntary muscle contractions.

36

Examples of dystonia?

1) writer's cramp
2) blepharospasm

37

ET treatment

1) nonselective beta-blockers (propranolol)
2) primidone

38

what is hemiballismus?

Sudden wild flailing of 1 arm +/- ipsilateral leg

39

hemiballismus due to damage to...

CONTRALATERAL sub thalamic nucleus

40

When is hemiballismus commonly seen?

lacunar strokes

41

intention tremor due to..

cerebellar dysfunction

42

What is myoclonus?

Sudden, brief, uncontrolled muscle contraction.

43

Examples of myoclonus?

1) jerks
2) hiccups

44

When does myoclonus often occur?

Metabolic abnormalities such as renal or liver failure.

45

What is alpha-synuclein?

Intracellular eosinophilic inclusions

46

How does neuronal death occur in HD?

via NMDA-R binding and glutamate excitotoxicity.

47

HD presentation on imaging

Atrophy of caudate and putamen with hydrocephalus ex vacuo.

48

Location of limbic association area...

FA 462

49

Location of sylvian fissure...

FA 462

50

Location of somatosensory association cortex...

FA 462

51

location of primary auditory cortex...

FA 462

52

Location of frontal eye field...

FA 462

53

Aphasia vs dysarthria

Aphasia -- higher-order language deficit. Can refer to speaking, understanding, reading, or writing
Dysarthria -- motor inability stop speak (movement deficit)