Flashcards in ID 17 Deck (59)
Cephalosporins as a class..
beta lactase that are less susceptible to penicillinases.
organisms not covered by 1st-4th generation cephalosporins? exception?
Atypicals (chlamydia, mycoplasma)
Exception: ceftaroline (5th generation cephalosporin, which covers MRSA)
1st gen cephalosporins?
1st gen cephalosporin use?
other use for cefazolin?
prior to surgery to prevent s aureus wound infections
2nd gen cephalosporins?
2nd gen cephalosporin use?
3rd gen cephalosporins?
disseminated lyme disease
4th generation cephalosporins...
gram negatives with increased activity against pseudomonas
1) hypersensitivity reactions
3) disulfiram-like reaction
4) vitamin K deficiency
5) cross-reactivity with penicillins
6) increase nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides
imipenem as a drug and caveat
1) broad spectrum, b-lactamase resistant.
2) always administered with cilastatin
what is cilastatin? why do you give it with imipenem?
1) inhibitor of renal dehydropeptidase I
2) decreases inactivation of drug in renal tubules.
1) Decreased seizure risk
2) stable to dehydropeptidase I
Gram positive cocci
gram negative rods
1) CNS toxicity, seizure
2) skin rash
3) GI distress
benefits of aztreonam
1) less susceptible to beta-lactamases
2) no cross-allergenicity with penicllins
Prevents peptidoglycan cross-linking by binding to penicillin-binding protein 3.
aztreonam has activity against
only gram negative rods
penicillin-allergic patients and those with renal insufficiency who can't tolerate ahminoglycosides.
1) bactericidal against most bacteria, except c diff
2) not susceptible to beta-lactamses
*only gram positives--serious multidrug-resistant organisms like enterococcus, MRSA, C diff, S epidermidis
4) diffuse flushing/red man syndrome
how do you prevent red man syndrome?
Pretreat with antihistamines + slow infusion rate.
vanco resistance mechanism
amino acid modification of D-ala D-ala to D-ala D-lac
bactericidal protein synthesis inhibitor?
ahminoglycosides, linezolid is variable