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Flashcards in ID 17 Deck (59)
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1

Cephalosporins as a class..

beta lactase that are less susceptible to penicillinases.

2

organisms not covered by 1st-4th generation cephalosporins? exception?

LAME
Listeria
Atypicals (chlamydia, mycoplasma)
MRSA
Enterococci
Exception: ceftaroline (5th generation cephalosporin, which covers MRSA)

3

1st gen cephalosporins?

Cefazolin
Cephalexin

4

1st gen cephalosporin use?

Proteus
E coli
klebsiella

5

other use for cefazolin?

prior to surgery to prevent s aureus wound infections

6

2nd gen cephalosporins?

Cefaclor
Cefoxitin
Cefuroxime

7

2nd gen cephalosporin use?

H influenza
Enterobacter aerogenes
Neisseria
Serratia
Proteus
E coli
Klebsiella

8

3rd gen cephalosporins?

Ceftriaxone
Cefotaxime
Ceftazidime

9

ceftazidime uses..

pseudomonas

10

ceftriaxone uses..

meningitis
gonorrhea
disseminated lyme disease

11

4th generation cephalosporins...

cefepime

12

cefepime uses...

gram negatives with increased activity against pseudomonas
gram positives

13

cephalosporin AE's

1) hypersensitivity reactions
2) AIHA
3) disulfiram-like reaction
4) vitamin K deficiency
5) cross-reactivity with penicillins
6) increase nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides

14

carbapenems

imipenem
meropenem
ertapenem
doripenem

15

imipenem as a drug and caveat

1) broad spectrum, b-lactamase resistant.
2) always administered with cilastatin

16

what is cilastatin? why do you give it with imipenem?

1) inhibitor of renal dehydropeptidase I
2) decreases inactivation of drug in renal tubules.

17

meropenem benefits

1) Decreased seizure risk
2) stable to dehydropeptidase I

18

carbapenem uses

Gram positive cocci
gram negative rods
anaerobes

19

Carbapenem AE's

1) CNS toxicity, seizure
2) skin rash
3) GI distress

20

benefits of aztreonam

1) less susceptible to beta-lactamases
2) no cross-allergenicity with penicllins

21

aztreonam mechanism

Prevents peptidoglycan cross-linking by binding to penicillin-binding protein 3.

22

aztreonam has activity against

only gram negative rods

23

aztreonam uses?

penicillin-allergic patients and those with renal insufficiency who can't tolerate ahminoglycosides.

24

vancomycin characteristics

1) bactericidal against most bacteria, except c diff
2) not susceptible to beta-lactamses

25

vancomycin uses..

*only gram positives--serious multidrug-resistant organisms like enterococcus, MRSA, C diff, S epidermidis

26

vanco AE's

1) nephrotoxic
2) ototoxic
3) thrombophlebitis
4) diffuse flushing/red man syndrome

27

how do you prevent red man syndrome?

Pretreat with antihistamines + slow infusion rate.

28

vanco resistance mechanism

amino acid modification of D-ala D-ala to D-ala D-lac

29

bactericidal protein synthesis inhibitor?

ahminoglycosides, linezolid is variable

30

peptidyl transferase function

Forms peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids using tRNAs during translation.