Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (312)
Most common ectopic thyroid tissue site
tongue (lingual thyroid). removal may result in hypothyroidism if it is the only thyroid tissue present.
branchial cleft cyst origin
persistent cervical sinus
Thyroid tissue origin
parafollicular cell origin
adrenal cortex and medulla origin
cortex from mesoderm, medulla from neural crest
chromaffin cell regulatory control
preganglionic sympathetic fibers
Melanotropin (MSH) origin
Intermediate lobe of pituitary.
Anterior pituitary other name
Anterior pituitary origin
oral ectodrm (Rathke pouch)
Hormones that share alpha subunit
TSH, LH, FSH, and hCG. Beta subunit determines specificity.
ACTH and MSH are derivates of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)
hormones of anterior pituitary
FLAT Pig: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, PRL, GH.
B-FLAT: basophils-FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
posterior pituitary other name
Origin of ADH and oxytocin
supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
ADH and oxytocin transport
carrier proteins called neurophysins.
posterior pituitary embryo origin
Islets of langerhans
collections of alpha, beta, and gamma endocrine cells in the pancreas.
Islets of langerhans origins
Arise from pancreatic buds.
Islets of langerhans organizations
alpha cells peripherally, beta cells centrally, delta cells interspersed
alpha cells secrete
delta cells secrete
preproinsulin synthesized in RER --> cleavage of "presignal" --> proinsulin (stored in secretory granules) --> cleavage of proinsulin --> exocytosis of insulin and C-peptide equally.
increased in insulinoma and sulfonylurea use, whereas exogenous insulin lacks C-peptide
activates gene transcription
anabolic effects of insulin
1) Increases glucose transport in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.
2) increases glycogen synthesis and storage
3) increases TG synthesis
4) increases Na+ retention
5) increases protein synthesis
6) increases cellular uptake of K+ and amino acids
7) decreases glucagon release
8) decreases lipolysis in adipose tissue
insulin and placenta
doesn't cross it, unlike glucose