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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (312)
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1

Most common ectopic thyroid tissue site

tongue (lingual thyroid). removal may result in hypothyroidism if it is the only thyroid tissue present.

2

branchial cleft cyst origin

persistent cervical sinus

3

Thyroid tissue origin

endoderm

4

parafollicular cell origin

neural crest

5

adrenal cortex and medulla origin

cortex from mesoderm, medulla from neural crest

6

chromaffin cell regulatory control

preganglionic sympathetic fibers

7

Melanotropin (MSH) origin

Intermediate lobe of pituitary.

8

Anterior pituitary other name

adenohypophysis

9

Anterior pituitary origin

oral ectodrm (Rathke pouch)

10

Hormones that share alpha subunit

TSH, LH, FSH, and hCG. Beta subunit determines specificity.

11

proopiomelanocortin (POMC(

ACTH and MSH are derivates of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)

12

hormones of anterior pituitary

FLAT Pig: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, PRL, GH.

13

Basophils

B-FLAT: basophils-FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH

14

Acidophils

GH, PRL

15

posterior pituitary other name

neurohypophysis

16

Origin of ADH and oxytocin

supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei

17

ADH and oxytocin transport

carrier proteins called neurophysins.

18

posterior pituitary embryo origin

neuroectoderm

19

Islets of langerhans

collections of alpha, beta, and gamma endocrine cells in the pancreas.

20

Islets of langerhans origins

Arise from pancreatic buds.

21

Islets of langerhans organizations

alpha cells peripherally, beta cells centrally, delta cells interspersed

22

alpha cells secrete

glucagon

23

delta cells secrete

somatostatin

24

Insulin synthesis

preproinsulin synthesized in RER --> cleavage of "presignal" --> proinsulin (stored in secretory granules) --> cleavage of proinsulin --> exocytosis of insulin and C-peptide equally.

25

C-peptide significance

increased in insulinoma and sulfonylurea use, whereas exogenous insulin lacks C-peptide

26

Insulin receptors

tyrosine kinase

27

insulin MOA

activates gene transcription

28

anabolic effects of insulin

1) Increases glucose transport in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.
2) increases glycogen synthesis and storage
3) increases TG synthesis
4) increases Na+ retention
5) increases protein synthesis
6) increases cellular uptake of K+ and amino acids
7) decreases glucagon release
8) decreases lipolysis in adipose tissue

29

insulin and placenta

doesn't cross it, unlike glucose

30

GLUT-4 expression

adipose tissue + striated muscle. exercise can also increase GLUT-4 expression