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Flashcards in Neuro XI Deck (56):
1

hemangioblastoma path description

closely arranged, thin-walled capillaries with minimal intervening parenchyma.

2

classic location of schwannoma

cerebellopontine angle

3

schwannoma management

Resection or stereotactic radiosurgery

4

Schwanzoma tumor marker

S-100

5

most common site of oligodendroglioma

frontal lobes

6

other findings in oligodendroglioma

1) "chicken-wire" capillary pattern
2) often calcified

7

pilocytic astrocytoma prognosis

benign; good prognosis

8

pilocytic astrocytoma location

Posterior fossa (cerebellum). May be supratentorial

9

characteristic path findings in pilocytic astrocytoma?

Rosenthal fibers

10

Rosenthal fibers description

Eosinophilic, corkscrew fibers.

11

gross finding of pilocytic astrocytoma

cystic + solid

12

medulloblastoma personality

1) highly malignant
2) form of primitive neuroectodermal tumor

13

medulloblastoma pathology

1) Homer-Wright rosettes
2) small blue cells

14

Most common site of ependymal cell tumors?

4th ventricle

15

ependymoma pathology

1) Characteristic perivascular rosettes
2) Rod-shaped blepharoplasts

16

blepharoplasts?

(basal ciliary bodies) found near nucleus

17

craniopharyngioma histology

1) calcification common
2) cholesterol crystals found in "motor oil" like fluid within tumor

18

pinealoma presentation in males

precocious puberty due to beta-hCG preoduction

19

pinealoma histology

similar to seminoma (late cells in lobules with watery cytoplasm and "fried egg" appearance)

20

Downward (transtentorial) central herniation

Caudal displacement of brain stem leads to rupture of paramedic basilar artery branches --> duret hemorrhages. Usually fatal.

21

cingulate herniation complication

con compress ACA

22

cingulate/subfaciline herniation

Innermost part of the frontal lobe is scraped under part of the fall cerebra.

23

duret hemorrhage

Small lineal areas of bleeding in the midbrain and upper pons of the brainstem caused by a traumatic downward displacement of the brainstem.

24

central herniation AKA

transtentorial herniation

25

central herniation pathophys

Caudal displacement of brain stem --> rupture of paramedic basilar artery branches --> Duret hemorrhages. Usually fatal.

26

Uncal herniation pathophys

1) Compresses *ipsilateral CN III
2) compresses ipsilateral PCA (leading to contralateral homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing)
3) compresses contralateral crus cerebri at the Kernohan notch (leading to ipsilateral paresis; "false localization sign")

27

what herniates with uncal herniations?

medial temporal lobe

28

tonsillar herniation pathophys

cerebellar tonsills herniate through foramen magnum leading to coma and death due to brain stem compression.

29

Brimonidine MOA

a2 agonist

30

epinephrine MOA for glaucoma?

Decreases aqueous humor synthesis via vasoconstriction.

31

brimonidine MOA for glaucoma?

Decreases aqueous humor synthesis

32

epinephrine contraindication

closed-angle glaucoma (mydriasis)

33

brominidine AE's

1) blurry vision
2) ocular hyperemia
3) foreign body sensation
4) ocular allergic reactions
5) ocular pruritis

34

b-blockers used in glaucoma?

1) timolol
2) *betaxolol
3) carteolol

35

b-blockers AE's in glaucoma

no pupillary or vision changes

36

acetazolamide MOA in glaucoma

decreases aqueous humor synthesis via inhibition of carbonic anhydrase

37

acetazolamide AE's in glaucoma

no pupillary or vision changes

38

drug for use in glaucoma emergency's? why?

pilocarpine (very effective at opening meshwork into canal of schlemm)

39

cholinomimetic MOA for glaucoma

Increase outflow of aqueous humor via contraction of ciliary muscle and opening of trabecular meshwork.

40

cholinomimetic AE's

miosis (contraction of pupillary sphincter muscles) + cyclospasm

41

cyclospasm

contraction of ciliary muscle

42

latanprost

PGF2alpha

43

prostaglandins for use in glaucoma?

1) bimatoprost
2) latanoprost

44

prostaglandin mechanism for glaucoma?

Increase outflow of aqueous humor

45

bimatoprost/latanoprost AE's

1) darken color of iris (browning)
2) eyelash growth

46

diphenoxylate

opioid analgesic

47

pentazocine

opioid analgesic

48

mu receptor is for?

beta-endorphins

49

delta receptor is for?

enkephalins

50

kappa opioid receptor is for?

dynorphin

51

opioid mechanism

Open K+ channels, close Ca2_ channels --> decreased synaptic transmission + inhibit release of ACh + NE + 5-HT + glutamate + substance P.

52

opioid GI use

anti-diarrheal

53

other use for opioid analgesics?

Acute pulmonary edema

54

opioid AE's

1) addiction
2) respiratory depression
3) constipation
4) miosis
5) additive CNS depression with other drugs

55

meperidine is unique in AE's among opioid analgesics because....

Causes mydriasis rather than mitosis.

56

tolerance and opioids

does not develop to *miosis and constipation.