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Flashcards in Heme Onc Part III Deck (150)
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1

Auer rods seen mostly in

APL (formerly M3 AML)

2

Other impt finding in AML

Increased myeloblasts on peripheral smear

3

APL subtype translocation

t(15;17)

4

effect of all-trans retinoid acid?

Induces differentiation of promyelocytes.

5

RF's for AML

1) alkylating therapy
2) radiation
3) myeloproliferative disorders
4) Down syndrome

6

median age at diagnosis in CML

64

7

Blast crisis

CML acceleration and transformation to AML or ALL.

8

How do you distinguish CML from leukemoid reaction?

Very low LAP in CML (low activity in malignant neutrophils) vs benign neutrophilic with leukemia in which LAP is increased.

9

Burkitt's translocation

8,14

10

What happens with chromosome 14 translocations?

The Ig heavy chain genes on chromosome 14 are normally constitutively expressed. When other genes (c-myc or BCL-2) translocate next to this gene, they become over expressed.

11

ALL translocation can rarely be...

9;22, BCR-ABL/philadelphia chromosome

12

Mantle cell activation

Cyclin D1

13

mantle cell translocation

11,14

14

Folicular lymphoma translocation

14,18

15

APL translocation

15,17

16

Langerhans presentation

lytic bone lesions in a child + skin rash or recurrent otitis media with a mass involving the mastoid bone.

17

Cell markers in langerhans

S-100 or CD1a

18

Chronic myeloproliferative disorder gene association

V617F JAK2 mutation

19

myeloproliferative disorders...

1) polycythemia vera
2) ET
3) myelofibrosis
4) CML

20

Causes of relative polycythemia

1) dehydration
2) burns

21

Relative polycythemia
1) plasma volume
2) RBC mass
3) O2 sat
4) EPO levels

1) decreased
2) no difference
3) no difference
4) no difference

22

Appropriate absolute
1) plasma volume
2) RBC mass
3) O2 sat
4) EPO levels

1) no difference
2) increased
3) decreased
4) increased

23

Causes of appropriate absolute polycythemia

1) lung disease
2) congenital heart disease
3) high altitude

24

INAppropriate absolute
1) plasma volume
2) RBC mass
3) O2 sat
4) EPO levels

1) no change
2) increased
3) no change
4) increased

25

Causes of inappropriate absolute

Due to ectopic EPO secretion
1) malignancy (eg, RCC, HCC)
2) hydronephrosis

26

Polycythemia vera
1) plasma volume
2) RBC mass
3) O2 sat
4) EPO levels

1) Increased
2) Very increased
3) No difference
4) Decreased

27

polycythemia vera etiology

Decreased EPO production due to negative feedback suppressing renal EPO production.

28

heparin mechanism

Lowers activity of thrombin and factor Xa

29

what do you need to monitor with heparin?

PTT

30

heparin AE's

Bleeding + thrombocytopenia + osteoporosis