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Flashcards in ID 14 Deck (66):
1

What happens during the latent phase of HIV infection?

Virus replicates in lymph nodes.

2

Time course of untreated HIV infection

1) First couple months = Acute phase -- flu-like symptoms. CD4 count drops. Viral load rises. Wide dissemination of virus. Seeding of lymphoid organs.
2) 2 months - 8 years = clinical latency. Feeling fine.
3) Falling t-cell count with constitutional symptoms
4) Final crises -- opportunistic diseases (9-10 years).

3

moderate immunocompromised with AIDS

less than 400 CD4+ cells/mm

4

JC virus on imaging

Nonenhancing areas of demyelination on MRI

5

aspergillus HIV presentation

hemoptysis + pleuritic pain

6

candida presentation in aids patient with T cell count below 100

esophagitis

7

Histoplasma presentation in AIDS patient with T cell count below 100

fever, weight loss, fatigue, cough dyspnea, nausea vomiting diarrhea

8

M avium presentation in AIDs patient with T cell count below 100

fever, night sweats, weight loss or focal lymphadenitis

9

t gondii presentation in AIDs patients

brain abscesses

10

aspergillus findings in AIDs patient

cavitation or infiltrates on chest imaging

11

CNS lymphoma in AIDS patient findings

ring enhancing

12

differentiating CNS lymphoma from toxoplasma

CNS lymphoma usually solitary vs. toxoplasma

13

Histoplasma path finding

oval yeast cells within macrophages

14

variant CJD

CJD transmitted through food contaminated by BSE-infected animal products

15

How do you kill prions?

can't autoclave.

16

location of s mutans

dental plaque

17

flora of neonates delivered by C-section

No flora but are rapidly colonized after birth.

18

Food poisoning that starts early and ends early?

1) s aureus
2) b cereus

19

c perfringens source

reheated meat

20

salmonella sources

poultry
*meat
eggs

21

s aureus sources

*meats
*mayonnaise
custard

22

campylobacter shape

comma or S-shaped

23

salmonella lactose?

negative

24

c diff GI presentation?

watery; occasionally bloody

25

protozoa causing watery diarrhea?

giardia
cryptosporidium

26

C perfringens diarrhea type

watery

27

viruses diarrhea type

watery

28

salmonella diarrhea type

bloody

29

EIEC diarrhea type

bloody

30

most common causes of pneumonia in neonates (less than 4 weeks old)

GBS
e coli

31

most common causes of pneumonia in children (4 week - 18 years)

Viruses (RSV)
Mycoplasma
S pneumonia

32

most common causes of pneumonia in adults (18-40)

Mycoplasma
C pneumonia
S pneumonia
Viruses (influenza)

33

most common causes of pneumonia in adults (40-65)

S pneumonia
H flu
Anaerobes
Viruses
Mycoplasma

34

most common causes of pneumonia in elderly

S pneumonia
Influenza virus
Anaerobes
H flu
Gram negative rods

35

common causes of pneumonia in alcoholics

Klebsiella
*Anaerobes (eg, peptostreptococcus, fusobacterium, prevotella, bacteroides)

36

common causes of pneumonia in IV drug users

1) s pneumoniae
2) s aureus

37

most common causes of atypical pneumonia

mycoplasma, *legionella, chlamydia

38

common causes of pneumonia in CF

pseudomonas
*s aureus
*s pneumonia
*burkholderia cepacia

39

common causes of pneumonia in immunocompromised

*s aureus
enteric gram negative rods
fungi
viruses
P jirovecii with HIV

40

Causes of meningitis in newborns (0-6 months)

GBS
E coli
Listeria

41

Causes of meningitis in children (6 mo-6 years)

S pneumonia
N meningitides
H flu type B
enteroviruses

42

Causes of meningitis in 6-60 yr

S pneumo
N meningitis
enteroviruses
HSV

43

Causes of meningitis in 60+

S pneumo
gram negative rods
listeria

44

meningitis managment

ceftriaxone and vanco empirically (add ampicillin if Listeria is suspected)

45

Viral causes of meningitis

Enteroviruses (coxsackie)
HSV-*2
HIV
WNV
VZV

46

When is H influenza usually seen?

unimmunized children.

47

Differentiating bacterial from fungal/TB meningitis

cell type

48

opening pressure in viral meningitis

normal or slightly elevated

49

CD4 count with HIV Dementia

200

50

CD4 count with Bacillary angiomatosis

500

51

CD4 count with JC virus/PML

200

52

CD4 count with aspergillus

100

53

CD4 count with t gondii

100

54

CD4 count with Kaposi sarcoma

500

55

CD4 count with Pneumocystis jirovecii

200

56

CD4 count with cryptosporidium

500

57

CD4 count with Candida

500

58

CD4 count with M avium

100

59

CD4 count with histoplasma

100

60

CD4 count with HPV (squamous cell carcinoma)

500

61

CD4 count with cryptococcus

100

62

CD4 count with CMV

100

63

CD4 count with oral hairy leukoplakia (EBV)

500

64

CD4 count with B-cell lymphoma

100

65

Most common cause of pneumonia in infants - 3 yr?

C trachomatis

66

Most common cause of pneumonia in school aged children?

C pneumonia