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What is a cross-sectional study? What does it ask? Measure?

Collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of disease and related risk factors a particular point in time. Asks what is happening.


What do cross-sectional studies show?

Just a risk factor association with disease but no causality.


Case series

Case series track subjects with a known exposure over time. No hypothesis testing; just descriptive.


What does a case-control study ask?

what happened?


What does a cohort study ask?

Who will develop the disease or who developed the disease?


Example of cross-sectional study

noise in automobile plant --> each employee tested for acuity and then ambient noise level is measured at his or her work station.